Bekeking:Recruitment and School News

NECO Literature in English Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Theory and Objective)

NECO Literature Questions and Answers 2023. I will be showing you past Literature objectives and theory repeated questions and NECO Literature Drama and Poetry for free in this post. You will also understand how NECO Literature in English questions are set and how to answer them.

The National Examinations Council (NECO) is an examination body in Nigeria that conducts the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination and the General Certificate in Education in June/July and December/January respectively.

NECO Literature Objectives and Essay (Prose) Answers 2023 (Expo)

The 2023 NECO Literature Expo will be posted here today, 27th July during the NECO Literature examination. Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers.

Drama and Poetry Answers Loading…

Queen Yoko is the tragic heroine who is also a historical figure in the play, She is the wife of Gbanya who is the chief of Senehun and Lamboi’s blood sister. She is high-spirited, determined, focused, and courageous, she knows what she wants and she is willing to do everything to achieve her heart desire. Gbanya made a promised to pass the chiefdom to her when he is no more her derails in his decision. Yoko refuses to cave into Gbanya’s attempt to give it to his chief warrior. Ndapi, Yoko continues to pester him until an unfortunate incident happened.
She is very sensitive to other people’s plight. She is not a greedy leader who is power drunk. She is very empathetic, for she is ever willing to share in her people’s feelings.

She is a peace-loving leader who does not derive joy in shedding innocent blood and that is why she strives hard to put an end to wars during her reign as Queen of Moyamba. She also demonstrates this in her relationship with the Governor. She knows how to be calm in a tense and unfortunate atmosphere. This is seen when she’s accused of being responsible for the death of Ndapi’s daughter, Jeneba, she could not react immediately but waits patiently to dig deep into the root of the matter.

Yoko is sensitive and soft-hearted. She allows the problems in the land to affect her psychologically, consequently, she could not manage it, and she feels that taking her own life is the best option, she takes poison and dies. This is because she believes that the only way to achieve peace on earth is through death.

Madam Yoko is a woman who loves to make sacrifices. She sacrifices her womanhood in order to govern her people. She refuses to bear children, a decision she took with Gbanya. She keeps to Gbanya’s decision not to allow her to have children but she concurs. She reminds him of the promise when Gbanya apparently declares that he cannot give a woman, the land of his ancestors Yoko laments, Yoko feels betrayed by Gbanya in this regard and the people she eventually governs.

This theme of colonial oppression is introduced at the beginning of the play when Gbanya narrates the dreams he had the previous night to Yoko about how the Governor humiliated him in the eyes of his people. Gbanya vows to receive and treat the Governor well in order not to incur his wrath. This shows that the setting of the play is connected to a pre-colonial era where Governors were appointed to oversee the activities of African communities.

Some of these Governors, representatives of Imperial Majesty tend to overzealously exploit the people but also treat them as sub-humans or humiliate them when the people in the community err against them and that is exactly what Dr. Samuel Rowe, the Governor does to Gbanya when he finds out that the people have not stopped engaging in the war despite his stern warning to desist from such barbaric act.

As a punitive measure or punishment, Gbanya the chief of Senehun is humiliated before his people. Rowe orders the soldiers to stretch Gbanya out on the ground. He also fires a shot from his pistol in the air to threaten Lavalie and Ndapi not to retaliate, Rowe takes the rice and cattle Gbanya entertained him with and zoom off.

Moreover, colonial domination also makes the chief and the people, not to have confidence in themselves because they feel and believe that the Governor, the white man is awash with superior and supreme power. That is why even when Rowe sends his Messengers to Moyamba, the people especially the chief treat him well like the Imperial Majesty herself.

Lastly, the people receive a dirty slaps on their faces when the Governor turns against them to gives out a portion of land that belongs to them to the chiefdom of Bo.

The central theme of youth and old age is prominent throughout the play and is portrayed through the interactions and conflicts between the characters.

Firstly in Youthful Exuberance and Traditional Wisdom as the play features two central characters who represent the contrasting aspects of youth and old age. Lakunle symbolizes the modern, educated youth with new ideas and aspirations. He advocates for change, gender equality, and the rejection of traditional practices. On the other hand, Baroka, the Bale (chief) of the village, embodies the wisdom of age and the traditional values of the community. He resists the changes Lakunle wants to bring and embraces the old ways.

Secondly in Beauty and Attractiveness delves into the perception of beauty and attractiveness, particularly concerning Sidi, the “jewel” of the village. Both Lakunle and Baroka are attracted to her, but their perceptions of her beauty are influenced by their age and mindset. Lakunle sees her as an idealized modern woman, while Baroka, despite his age, desires her youthfulness, portraying how youth and age approach attractiveness differently.

Thirdly the play uses Power and Control as age often comes with power and influence in traditional societies, and the play explores the struggle for control between the young and the old. Baroka, as the Bale, holds significant authority over the village, while Lakunle seeks to challenge and undermine that authority. The generational conflict highlights the tensions between the established order and the desire for change.

Fourthly in Tradition and Modernity which the play examines the clash between tradition and modernity. Lakunle represents the forces of modernization, trying to introduce Western ideas and values into the village, while Baroka stands for the preservation of traditional African customs and norms. This theme raises questions about the potential benefits and drawbacks of embracing modernity while preserving cultural heritage.

Lastly is in the Role of Women as it touches on the role of women in traditional societies and how it changes with the influence of youth and old age. Sidi, as a young woman, has dreams and aspirations, but she is also bound by societal expectations and the desires of the men around her. The conflict between Lakunle and Baroka also highlights the power dynamics within male-female relationships.
Additionally Legacy and Impact in the older characters in the play, particularly Baroka, are concerned about their legacy and how they will be remembered after their time is over. Baroka’s desire to maintain his virility and youthfulness by marrying Sidi is driven, in part, by his fear of being forgotten and replaced by a younger generation.

The play uses the theme of youth and old age to explore deeper issues within African society, such as tradition, change, power dynamics, and the evolving roles of men and women. The play offers a complex portrayal of these themes through its rich characters and their interactions, shedding light on the challenges and conflicts that arise when tradition meets modernity.

In African society, bride price is considered to be the most important part of a marriage rite such that any married woman without it is branded as illegal and unrecognized. In some African communities, children raised or given birth to in such marriage are taken away from their father.

In the play, Bride price is an integral aspect of African culture and tradition because Sidi could have married Lakunle before she is seduced by Baroka whom she believes is ready to pay her bride price unlike Lakunle who describes such traditional rite as “savage custom, barbaric, outdated, retrogressive and unpalatable… To further demonstrate the importance of bride price in the play, Sidi promises to marry Lakunle only if he agrees to settle her bride price.

Ideally, bride price is a sign of respect and regard for the bride and her family who otherwise would become “a cheap bowl for the village spit” (object of scorn and shame). It also portrays bride’s purity (virginity) and undefiled status. Lakunle sees it as “buying a heifer of the stall, while Sidi sees it as a mark of honor and respect identity and dignity to womanhood in Africa.

Lakunle opposes this idea because of his influence on the western concept of gender equality. He thinks that bride price is uncivilized and outrageous custom.

(Answer ONE Question from this section)

“Innocence” is an underlying theme the play, which its portrayal of disillusionment and societal unrest is characterized.

The theme of innocence is explored in the play firstly through the Loss of Innocence as the play’s main character, Jimmy Porter, is filled with anger and bitterness towards society, his upbringing, and his own circumstances. He is disillusioned and frustrated with the world around him, feeling that his dreams and aspirations have been crushed. His anger stems from the loss of innocence he experienced as he transitioned from a hopeful and optimistic young man to a bitter and resentful adult.

Secondly, throughout the play, there are references to childhood memories and innocence. These memories serve as a stark contrast to the present state of the characters’ lives, reminding the audience of the characters’ lost innocence and the passage of time. The past is portrayed as a time of simplicity and purity, which stands in contrast to the complexities and disappointments of the present.

Thirdly Alison, Jimmy’s wife, is portrayed as a gentle and sensitive character who has lost touch with her own innocence due to her troubled marriage with Jimmy. Her life with him has been filled with emotional turmoil, and she struggles to find happiness and fulfillment. Her inability to connect with her own feelings and desires is emblematic of the loss of innocence and the impact of a tumultuous relationship.

Fourthly the play is set in post-World War II Britain, a time of significant social change and upheaval. The characters in the play grapple with the loss of innocence related to their beliefs and values. The disillusionment with societal norms and the establishment is a central theme throughout the play.

Additionally the Desire for Innocence his the characters in the play, particularly Jimmy and Alison, yearn for a return to innocence and simplicity. However, the weight of their past experiences and their strained relationship makes it difficult for them to recapture that sense of innocence.

Further more the character of Helena, Alison’s friend, serves as a symbol of innocence in the play. She is depicted as a contrast to Alison, embodying a sense of purity and simplicity that the other characters lack. Helena’s presence highlights the loss of innocence experienced by the other characters.

The play explores the theme of innocence through the lens of personal and societal disillusionment. The characters’ struggles with their past, their relationships, and their desires for a simpler time underscore the loss of innocence as a fundamental aspect of their lives. The play remains a powerful depiction of the human condition and the complexities of navigating adulthood amidst the loss of youthful innocence.

Jimmy porter is the central character in the play; a twenty five year-old man who lives in Britain’s industrial midlands. He is an educated; well-read individual who works in a factory that is tends a sweet stall he is trying to buy, and issues diatribes about British society, which he feels has denied him opportunity simply because of his working class background.

Jimmy is self-conceited, self-centered and individualistic. He prides himself on his honestly, but can be cruel, as seen in his verbal attacks on his wife, Alison and his father, and on, Cliff Lewis, who lives with them.

Jimmy is a misogynist, that is, one who hates women. He hates womenfolk with passion and never takes them seriously. He sees them as people who cannot contribute anything meaningful to his life. He tends to transfer the anger in the past to them. He maltreats Alison, makes her feel subhuman to the point of resistance and her father, until Colonel Redfern comes to her rescue, and the Colonel takes her home. His only reason for maltreating Alison is the fact that she is too possessive and that she cannot understand him because she has never suffered, because he suffered at the age of ten; for he had to watch his father die. Because he insists on total loyalty, Jimmy feels betrayed when his wife, Alison, does not accompany him to the dead bed of a friend’s mother, yet he does not see anything wrong with his having an affair with Helena, his wife’s friend.

Jimmy is egocentric and egoistic; for he cares only about his own feeling and cares less about other people around him. He seems incapable of empathizing with his wife, even when she grieves over losing their baby. He takes her back only after he has realized her importance and completely abased herself to him. Jimmy is the “angry young man” of the play. Born working class but highly educated like his friend and roommate, Cliff but Jimmy have an ambivalent relationship with his educated status and yet frustrated that his education can do nothing to effect his class status. Jimmy is a frustrated character who wallows in his feelings of alienation and uselessness in post-war England. Jimmy is a bundle of contradictions. He is passionate about progressive politics but he treats his wife like a slave, which might seem contrary to being progressive, Jimmy is filled with rage but the reason for this misery is not known to anyone.

The theme of parental responsibility is explored through the family disintegration and rebirth

There is a serious case of one who is building an enduring family reputation and unity and there is another who is destroying it and bringing it to disrepute.

Rose who is positive minded does everything possible to reposition the Maxson’s family by giving moral and financial support to the members in her household, while Troy whose income cannot even settle his family’s need is busying dragging the family name on the mire.

So, Troy struggles to fulfill his role as a father to his son and husband to his wife. He does not do much before his demise. The family he ruled with Iron hand or hard-handedness is torn apart, as his son; Cory turns against him and also becomes a rebel. After leveling serious criticism on how Troy tormented his life and dreams for a better future, he vows not to attend his funeral. Troy’s adulterous act with Alberta also contributes to Troy’s backwardness and family disintegration. The nature of trust between Rose and Troy is broken here, because Rose has vowed never to have anything to do with Troy, especially when the news about Alberta’s pregnancy for “Troy filters in.

To further demonstrate that Rose is an embodiment of unity and family’s rebirth, she tries to convince Cory not to speak despicably against his dead father and to assure him that Troy means well for the family, “Your daddy wanted you to be everything he wasn’t… and at the same time he tried to make you everything he was… he meant to do more good than he meant to do harm” Rose cautions Cory. Troy also sees Rose as a good woman capable of uniting the family when he says… “I know she’s a good woman I have been married to her for eighteen years”

Also, Rose forgives Troy and accepts to bring up Raynell, that is, the illegitimate daughter of Troy and Alberta who died shortly after child birth in order to promote peace harmony and family integration in Maxsons.

(i) Rose Maxson is Troy’s devoted wife and mother of his second son, Cory. She is a forty three years-old African-American house wife who volunteers to attend church regularly. She is ten years younger than Troy. Her devotion to him stem from her recognition of the possibilities of her life without him.

She is a woman with excellent spirit and great understanding. She recognizes Troy’s spirit as a fine and illuminating one and she either ignores or forgives his faults, only some of which she recognizes, Rose’s request that Troy and Cory build a fence in their small dirt backyard comes to represent her desire to keep her loved ones close to her with tender care while she is doing everything to unit her family; Troy is busy destroying the family’s dreams and aspiration.

She is a compassionate mother in all of her relationship with the members of her family, unlike Troy who discriminates. She is a fair Judge of character, and she sincerely hopes for a better future for her husband and son by not begrudging the stagnant situation at the moment. She is also kind, peaceful and ever willing to forgive those who wrong her. Rose’s acceptance of Troy’s illegitimate daughter, Reynell, as her own child demonstrates this attribute of hers.

Cory Maxeon is Troy and Rose’s teenage son. He is an ambitious young man who has the talent and determination to realize his dreams. He is a very respectful and compassionate nephew to his disabled uncle Gabriel. He is quite passionate and optimistic about great future to become a footballer and he needs to actualize it through his father’s support and love, but contrarily unmet by the pessimism of his father. His father, Troy believes that he can’t excel as a result of racism. He prefers him to read more books to get promoted in his A & P Job, or learn how to fix cars or build houses or learn a trade. Troy views Cory’s career aspirations as idealistic and detached from the realities of a racist society where the white dominate world of sports will not support his son’s dream of becoming a footballer.

He is a dynamic and persistent person, for he is undaunted by Troy’s bully and this makes Cory hate him vehemently. He refuses to attend Troy’s funeral because of his father’s hard handedness. He does not want to be Troy Maxson, he wants to be himself. He says this to stand up to his father who is not willing to support his dreams.

August Wilson uses Cory as an opposing force to Troy’s views and values which Troy stands for and the clash before both is the central conflict in the play. Cory undergoes transformation when she leaves home to join the marines in the end.

(Answer ONE Question from this section)

The Grieved Lands of Africa” by Agostinho Neto is a poignant and emotionally charged poem that addresses the suffering, oppression, and resilience of Africa and its people. The poem delves into the historical and contemporary injustices faced by the continent, while also celebrating the enduring spirit and unity of its people.

Tone: The tone of the poem is one of sorrow, grief, and lamentation. The title itself, “The Grieved Lands of Africa,” sets the somber tone for the entire poem. The poet paints a picture of the hardships endured by Africa, referencing slavery, degradation, and oppression. The repetition of “grieved” throughout the poem emphasizes the weight of suffering borne by the continent and its people.

Mood: The mood of the poem is both sorrowful and hopeful. While it acknowledges the deep pain and injustice faced by Africa, there is also a sense of resilience and hope that shines through. The poem celebrates the enduring spirit of Africa and its people, emphasizing their vitality and the richness of their culture. The mention of dreams, dances, and the sound of life alludes to the indomitable spirit of the continent, despite its history of suffering.

The Leader and the Led is an allegorical poem. Hence, it can be understood at two levels of meaning. The poem makes use of animal characters to illustrate human conditions. The poem dramatises a situation where different animals vie for leadership positions, but are judged by other animals to be unqualified because of certain negative attributes that they possess. For instance, the Lion is seen to be ‘ferocious’ in his dealings with other animals. In other words, the Lion’s anger and oppressive tendencies disqualify him from being an ideal leader. Other animals who aspire to the leadership of the jungle are the Hyena, the Giraffe, the Zebra, the Elephant, the Warthog and the Rhino. Each of these aspirants is seen to have one or two negative attributes that disqualify them from being leaders.

In other words, they have their excesses and these do not make for the ideal leadership that the animals are glamouring for. For instance, the Hyena’s ‘lethal appetite’ is what detracts from his leadership abilities. The Giraffe is seen to be high up there, which means that he might not be in tune with the real experiences of the masses. The Zebra is seen not to be an honest and straightforward person. The elephant is feared for its gigantic feet which could easily crush the lesser creatures. The Warthog has an ugly character while the Rhino is seen to be too violent to be a good leader.

In the ending stanza, it is revealed that a good leader is one who has ‘a hybrid of habits’.
This is further explained in the next stanza:
‘A little bit of a Lion/A little bit of a Lamb’.
This means that leaders should have
dynamic, unpredictable but virtuous qualities.
Again, the poem implies that leaders should acknowledge the fact that they derive their value from the followers, as it is the followers that enthrone leaders

(Answer ONE Question from this section)

The theme of change is portrayed in the poem as it questions the essence of modernism which seeks to reflect the shift in human consciousness, that is an essential part of modernist thought. The poet uses the poem “Bat” to represent 20th-century society which was characterized by war, religion, different beliefs and politics. It is a well-known fact that there is a shift or change in thinking and relation which has caused unrest in our modern society. “Bat” for instance, is an animal that is neither a bird nor rodent. It hangs upside down to sleep. This is symbolic of abnormality which is a product of 20th century society. The birds do perch and sleep in their nest which is contrary to the bat.

The fact that the protest poem ends “not for me” is also a sign of rejection of modernism. This poem dwells on loss of innocence into experience or the charge that Virginia Woolf identifies as part of modernism. This experience is the cause of human predicament. Also, the poet resets the idea about modernity which marks the advancement of technology, nuclear weapon because they are meant for destruction. Despite the fact that bat represents happiness in china which is symbolic of technological invention, the persona is not moved by such revelation.

Journey of the Magi” by T.S. Eliot is a travelogue recounting the arduous expedition of the three wise men from the East in search of the newborn baby Jesus. The poem is divided into three parts, depicting the harsh weather conditions they endured, the toll it took on them and their camels, and the transformative impact of witnessing the birth of Christ.

In the opening stanza, the Magi face the bitter cold of winter, and the persona bitterly complains about the challenging conditions, providing vivid details of the setting. The poem sets the stage for the difficult journey ahead.

The second part portrays the exhausting nature of the journey, which seems endless. The relentless cold and harsh weather cause painful injuries to their camels, making them reluctant to continue. The Magi regret their decision, yearning for the comforts of home and the pleasures they left behind. The mention of “silken girls” serving them sweet fruits and diluted fruit juice evokes nostalgia and temptation to abandon the quest.

As they seek refuge in cities along the way, they find no respite. The cities are unwelcoming, and the villagers charge exorbitant prices for basic necessities, leaving the Magi without proper accommodation. Traveling at night to avoid danger, doubts arise about the purpose of their journey.

The third stanza brings a glimmer of hope as they arrive in Bethlehem, a temperate valley “smelling of vegetation.” However, the mention of “three trees on the low sky” foreshadows the crucifixion of Christ, adding weight to their destination’s significance.

Upon entering Bethlehem, they find the locals engrossed in drinking and merriment, seemingly oblivious to the birth of the Messiah in their midst. The Magi continue until they reach an unexpected location in the evening—a manger. They struggle to comprehend how such a great savior could be born in such humble surroundings among animals.

The concluding stanza takes on a philosophical tone as the narrator reflects on the transformative impact of their journey. Witnessing the birth of Christ brings death to their old way of life, leading to repentance and salvation. The gifts they offer symbolize their newfound devotion. Returning to their homeland, they no longer fit into their former pagan practices and view their fellow countrymen as “alien people.” The birth of Christ heralds the death of their old worldly ways.

The poem concludes with a longing for another transformative experience, akin to death. This alludes to the death of Jesus Christ, bringing salvation and redemption to the world. It serves as a call for fortitude on the Christian journey, acknowledging the challenges and sacrifices that ultimately lead to spiritual renewal and eternal life.

In conclusion, “Journey of the Magi” presents a poignant travelogue of the wise men’s hardships in their quest to witness the birth of Christ. Their journey leaves them forever changed, embracing a new life of repentance and devotion. Through vivid imagery and allusions, the poem explores the transformative power of faith and the profound impact of encountering the divine. 


NECO 2023 Literature Answers Loading…

OBJ Answers:


Essay Answers:

There are TWO sections in this Literature paper.

Section I (1-4)
Section II (5-8)

You are required to answer ONLY ONE question from each section.SECTION I
(Answer ONLY ONE question from this section)

Adah is the daughter of both Pa and Ma, Boy’s sister and Francis Obi’s daring wife. As the heroine of the novel, she is given birth in a wrong era where female children are treated as subhuman who is of no value. Her upbringing is surrounded by a struggle for survival, not only of herself but also her dreams, while growing into a woman, moving from a high-class position in her native Nigeria to a very poor class in a predominantly white society. She struggles with motherhood and with being a wife and supporting her entire family along with being her own independent person. Part of her struggle also deals with the issues of marriage.

Adah is a dreamer and self-motivator. Her dream of going to the United Kingdom begins when she was just eight years. This dream of hers is further oiled by a lawyer Nweze, the first lawyer in Ibuza who serves as her role model. Initially, she wants to go to school especially, now that her brother is already in school and she sneaks away from her mother one day and runs to school unregistered. Adah’s dream to go to the United Kingdom to study and for her to achieve greatness over there does not come through without setbacks. Firstly, she is not allowed to go to school because she is a girl and the family does not want to spend the money on her to go and she gets her mother into trouble to actualize this dream.

She is patient and hardworking. Adah is a strong believer in hard work and consistency. It is this attribute that helps her achieve most of her goals. and also makes her develop a thick skin to withstand and confront all the challenges she encountered while growing up as a young girl. One of such challenges occurs when her father dies and she is sent to live with her mother’s brother. when she could not pay for her entrance examination, she cunningly obtains money from her cousin and the fact that she receives one hundred and fifty strokes of canes and this makes her a strong will and stubborn child. For instance, Adah learned very early to be responsible for herself. It is also the driving force behind her desire to never give up on her dream.

Adah is also a responsible mother per-excellence who cares a great deal for her children and she is ever ready to spoil them with all the goodies in the world, unlike Francis who denies them and disowns them and even wishes to put them on for adoption when the children need him most like their father. At the beginning, Adah tries to avoid marriage until she realizes that marriage might be her only way to continue on with her dreams.

As an independent worker and a go-getter, Adah is poised to work and contribute to the family and she is certain that she must care for her five children when she eventually divorces Francis.

Adah is a Christian to the core who prays fervently for her family but does not have time to go to church in England. Adah is also characterized throughout the novel by her sense of initiative and determination to change her course in life.


In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen,” Adah Ofili emerges as a central and resilient character, embodying the struggles and triumphs of an African woman navigating a patriarchal society. Adah’s role in the narrative provides profound insights into the challenges faced by women in post-colonial Nigeria, highlighting themes of gender inequality, cultural expectations, and the pursuit of personal and professional fulfillment.

Adah is depicted as a determined and resilient woman, striving to overcome the limitations placed on her as a “second-class citizen” due to her gender and societal norms. From a young age, she exhibits intelligence, ambition, and a thirst for education, setting her apart from traditional gender roles in her community. Despite encountering numerous obstacles and societal disapproval, Adah remains steadfast in her pursuit of education and a better life.

Throughout the novel, Adah undergoes a transformative journey, experiencing both victories and setbacks. She endures poverty, domestic abuse, and cultural barriers while juggling the responsibilities of motherhood and her aspirations as a writer. Adah’s resilience shines through as she navigates the complexities of providing for her children, facing limited employment opportunities, and challenging the constraints imposed by a patriarchal society. Her experiences exemplify the sacrifices and hardships endured by women in similar circumstances.

Adah’s role as a mother adds depth to her character. While she deeply loves her children, she grapples with balancing maternal duties and personal ambitions. This struggle reflects the challenges faced by women striving for self-fulfillment within societal expectations. Adah’s determination to be a writer becomes a powerful symbol of resistance and empowerment. Writing provides her with an outlet for self-expression and an avenue to challenge social norms and injustices faced by women in Nigeria.


The theme of cultural shock in Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen” serves as a central thread that weaves throughout the narrative, illuminating the challenges faced by the protagonist, Adah Ofili, as she navigates between her Nigerian heritage and the cultural realities of her new life in Britain. The novel explores the profound impact of cultural dissonance on individual identity, relationships, and the struggle for self-acceptance.

Adah experiences a profound cultural shock when she moves to Britain with her husband, Francis. The stark contrast between the cultural values, customs, and expectations of Nigeria and those of her adopted country significantly shape her experiences and contribute to her personal growth and adversity. Adah finds herself torn between the traditional expectations placed upon her as a Nigerian woman and the opportunities and freedoms she encounters in her new environment.

One aspect of cultural shock that Adah faces is the clash between traditional gender roles in Nigeria and the more progressive attitudes in Britain. In her homeland, women are expected to conform to submissive roles, sacrificing their ambitions for the sake of family and community. Adah’s aspirations for education and independence challenge these norms and often lead to conflict and alienation from her family. In Britain, she is exposed to different gender dynamics, where women have more agency and opportunities for self-expression. This stark contrast highlights the complexities and challenges she faces as she strives to reconcile her Nigerian heritage with her evolving identity in a new cultural context.

Additionally, the theme of cultural shock is intertwined with issues of race and identity. Adah encounters racism and discrimination in Britain, which further complicates her sense of self. The prejudice she experiences shapes her perceptions and interactions with others, ultimately influencing her determination to succeed despite the hurdles placed before her. The novel portrays the psychological and emotional toll of cultural shock, as Adah grapples with questions of belonging, self-worth, and the preservation of her cultural identity.

Through Adah’s journey, “Second Class Citizen” explores the transformative power of cultural shock. While initially disorienting and challenging, Adah’s experiences ultimately lead to self-discovery, resilience, and a stronger sense of identity. She learns to navigate between her Nigerian roots and the British context, carving out her own path and challenging societal expectations. Adah’s story invites readers to reflect on the complexities of cultural adaptation and the ways in which individual identity is shaped by encounters with new environments.


The role of tradition and modernity cannot be downplayed in this novel as it exhibits a cultural shock as it serves as the ultimate conflict that makes the two key characters, Adah and Francis to be at loggerhead with each other before they finally part ways. Francis, his family, and Adah’s parents so much believe in tradition and superstition, for they want things to be done as laid down by their ancestors.

In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen,” the theme of cultural shock plays a central role, penetrating every aspect of the narrative and offering a profound exploration of the protagonist’s struggle to navigate the clash between her Nigerian heritage and the realities of her new life in Britain. The novel vividly portrays the transformative and far-reaching impact of cultural dislocation on individual identity, relationships, and the quest for self-acceptance.

The theme of cultural shock is central in “Second Class Citizen” as it permeates the experiences and challenges faced by the protagonist, Adah Ofili, throughout the novel. When Adah moves to Britain with her husband, Francis, she encounters a stark contrast between the cultural values, customs, and societal expectations of Nigeria and those of her adopted country. This dissonance becomes a defining element of her journey, shaping her experiences and exposing her to a multitude of personal and societal conflicts.

Adah grapples with the clash between traditional gender roles in Nigeria and the more progressive attitudes she encounters in Britain. In Nigeria, women are expected to conform to submissive roles, prioritizing family and community over personal aspirations. Adah’s pursuit of education and independence challenges these norms, leading to tension and estrangement from her family. In Britain, she confronts a different set of gender dynamics, where women have more agency and opportunities for self-expression. This dichotomy highlights the complexities Adah faces as she strives to reconcile her Nigerian heritage with her evolving sense of self in an unfamiliar cultural context.

Her story serves as a reflection of the challenges faced by individuals caught between different cultural worlds and invites readers to contemplate the complexities of cultural adaptation, the negotiation of identity, and the universal longing for self-acceptance.


In the novel, citizens and governments of both Nigeria and Ghana are not comfortable with other country’s nationals in their country. The Bank Manager of Expense Bank does not hide his dislike for Nii Tackie whom he sees as a Nigerian living off the wealth of Ghana. He goes to the extent of saying that if given the power, he would gladly sack all the “aliens” working in the bank.

The Bank Manager’s wish though not fulfilled is already in motion outside the bank. Ghanaians are already hitting out on Nigerians living in Ghana. This is further confirmed by newspaper reports as related by an immigration officer during the screening of Mama Orojo’s luggage in the airport on her way to Accra and also by Nii Tackie’s sudden consciousness of his tribal marks.

In Nigeria, there is expulsion of aliens from the country; mostly Ghanaians. The Ghanaians are clearly doing well in Nigeria before the alienation policy is introduced. They work in banks, schools, and construction companies. But immediately the new immigration policy is introduced, their Nigerian employers subtly collect their residents’ permits and destroy them.

Idem’s expression in Chapter 8 (Part 1) of the text, “Omo Ghana no go go oo”, underscores the attitude of many Nigerian citizens to Ghanaians; whether legal or illegal immigrants.

Nii and Aaron encounter a severe bout of xenophobic hostility upon reaching the Nigerian border in Lagos. Despite Nii’s relentless efforts to thrive in Ghana, he ultimately decides to embark on a fresh start in Nigeria, driven by the desire to reunite with his long-lost sister and rebuild his life. Unfortunately, upon his arrival, he is met with the Nigerian government’s implementation of a policy aimed at expelling foreigners from the country—a retaliatory response to previous xenophobic attacks.

Despite Nii’s Nigerian heritage, he finds himself engulfed in despair and anguish, unable to communicate in any local language. Even his tribal marks and family name fail to shield him from the clutches of discrimination. Nii soon realizes that acquiring citizenship requires much more than superficial markers such as tribal affiliations or family lineage. Consequently, he is apprehended by an officer and forced into labor on a cassava farm as a means to regain his freedom within his own homeland.

The journey of fruitless searching plunges Nii into a state of emotional turmoil, until fate intervenes, finally reuniting him with Mama Orojo, his long-lost sister, in Nigeria. The reunion brings a glimmer of hope amid the hardships and tribulations Nii has endured, offering a semblance of solace and connection in a foreign land.


In Alex Agyei-Agyiri’s novel “Unexpected Joy at Dawn,” the theme of xenophobia is a prominent thread that weaves throughout the narrative, shedding light on the destructive nature of prejudice and discrimination. The story unfolds in a small rural community in Ghana, where the arrival of a group of strangers from various African countries exposes the deeply ingrained xenophobia within the local residents.

According to Mama, the then opposition party accused aliens, that is, non-citizens of ruining the country, or the government of that time has made a mess of its management of the affairs of the Ghanaian economy and blamed their failure to do things right on us aliens as scapegoats. Life becomes quite unbearable to learn that Mama Orojo and her family are unwanted in a country they have come to regard to be their home. The journey to Nigeria is not without difficulties, as they stopped to bury someone each time the track stopped. She buried her father and mother on her way. Not heard about her grandma who refused to come with them.

As a result, the economic situation in Ghana deteriorates, forcing many skilled workers and professionals to leave the country. The nation faces a devastating drought, leading to widespread crop failure and a decline in primary product exports. The country’s burdens multiply, exacerbating the economic gloom. Even Nii Tackie, working as an assistant manager in a bank, is compelled to take up part-time teaching to make ends meet during this difficult period.

The authorities implement panic-driven economic measures, including the withdrawal of the fifty cedis note, the highest denomination of the national currency. This decision leaves the people impoverished and disheartened. The economic downturn also fuels tension and animosity between the native population and immigrants, resulting in xenophobic attacks as an outlet for expressing their dissatisfaction and disapproval of foreigners. Both natives and non-natives become victims of this escalating hostility.

Aaron Tsuru, the owner of Ant Hill brick, is among those affected by the adverse consequences of xenophobia. Unable to secure a loan from the bank due to detrimental government policies, he is compelled to abandon his career and seek better opportunities elsewhere. Similarly, Nii Tackie, despite his aspirations, decides to leave his dream career behind and journey to Nigeria in search of greener pastures.

Another distressing consequence of xenophobia is the unjust brutality perpetrated by security personnel, who exploit the situation to mistreat both citizens and non-citizens. In a chilling incident at the market, an armed soldier chases a ten-year-old girl for selling goods above the government-imposed price controls.

All in all, the novel portrays the worsening economic conditions in Ghana, forcing professionals and skilled workers to emigrate. The country grapples with a devastating drought, crop failures, and economic hardships. The withdrawal of the highest denomination currency triggers tensions between natives and immigrants, resulting in xenophobic attacks. Individuals like Aaron Tsuru and Nii Tackie are compelled to abandon their career aspirations and seek opportunities elsewhere. The incidents of brutality by security personnel further highlight the grim consequences of xenophobia on both citizens and non-citizens alike.


Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie, two siblings separated by circumstances, make several heartfelt attempts to reconcile with each other throughout the narrative. Their desire to reconnect and mend their strained relationship serves as a driving force in the story, showcasing the power of forgiveness, resilience, and the enduring bond of family.

Initially, Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie are separated at a young age due to a tragic event. As they grow older, both siblings harbor a deep longing to reunite and find solace in each other’s presence. Mama Orojo, aware of her brother’s existence, actively searches for him, driven by the memories and love they shared as children. She seeks information, reaches out to mutual acquaintances, and even embarks on journeys to different locations in hopes of discovering Nii Tackie’s whereabouts.

On the other hand, Nii Tackie, unaware of his sister’s efforts, also experiences a sense of longing and loss. He carries the weight of their separation, feeling an inexplicable void in his life. He nurtures a flickering hope of reuniting with Mama Orojo, although the passage of time and life’s challenges make it increasingly difficult.

As the narrative unfolds, circumstances align, and fate intervenes, bringing Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie closer to a long-awaited reunion. Through chance encounters, the assistance of kind-hearted individuals, and a series of fortuitous events, the siblings’ paths gradually converge. The author intricately weaves their individual journeys, highlighting the perseverance, determination, and unwavering love that propel Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie towards each other.

When Mama Orojo finally locates Nii Tackie, their reunion is a powerful and emotionally charged moment. The years of longing and separation dissolve as they embrace, their hearts filled with joy, forgiveness, and a shared understanding of the past. The siblings embark on a journey of reconciliation, seeking to heal the wounds inflicted by their separation and rebuild the bond that was once shattered.

Throughout their reconciliation process, Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie engage in heartfelt conversations, sharing their experiences, regrets, and dreams. They confront the pain and misunderstandings of the past, allowing empathy and forgiveness to pave the way for healing. Their determination to rebuild their relationship serves as an inspiration, illustrating the profound impact of forgiveness, resilience, and the enduring power of familial love.


Nii Tackie and Mama Orojo, blood relatives from Nigeria, find themselves separated by two deportations. The first deportation occurred when Mama Orojo was still young and living with her parents in Ghana. The Ghanaian government implemented an Alien Compliance Order in 1969, forcing aliens without resident permits to regularize their stay or leave the country. Mama Orojo’s great grandparents had migrated to Ghana years ago.

Mama Orojo, aware of her brother’s existence, takes the initiative to search for Nii Tackie. She actively seeks information from family members, acquaintances, and anyone who may have knowledge of his whereabouts. Driven by her memories of their childhood and the deep bond they shared, Mama Orojo embarks on a relentless pursuit, leaving no stone unturned in her quest to find her long-lost brother. Her determination fuels her resilience, as she travels to different locations in her search for Nii Tackie.

On the other hand, Nii Tackie, though unaware of Mama Orojo’s efforts, carries the weight of their separation within him. He experiences a sense of longing and loss, clinging to the hope of reuniting with his sister. Despite the challenges life throws at him, Nii Tackie holds onto the belief that they will one day reconnect.

Throughout the narrative, circumstances align, and fate plays its part in bringing Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie closer to their long-awaited reunion. Chance encounters, the assistance of kind-hearted individuals, and a series of fortunate events gradually bring their paths together. These providential occurrences underscore the depth of their connection and the significance of their bond.

Finally, the pivotal moment arrives when Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie are face to face. Their reunion is marked by overwhelming emotions as years of separation dissolve in an embrace filled with joy and forgiveness. The shared understanding of their past experiences allows them to confront the pain and misunderstandings that kept them apart. With empathy and a willingness to heal, they embark on a journey of reconciliation, determined to rebuild the bond that was shattered by their separation.

During their journey of reconciliation, Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie delve into deep and heartfelt dialogues, exchanging tales of their personal journeys, reflections on past experiences, and aspirations for the future. Together, they confront the hurdles and hardships that once divided them, embracing the transformative powers of forgiveness and empathy as they navigate the path to healing. Their mutual dedication to rebuilding their bond stands as a testament to the unwavering strength of familial love and the profound impact of forgiveness in shaping their lives anew.

(Answer ONLY ONE question from this section)

The statement “To whom it may concern: keep this nigger boy running” encapsulates a central theme that resonates throughout the life of the Narrator. This statement serves as a reminder of the dehumanizing and oppressive forces that shape the Narrator’s existence, forcing him to constantly strive for survival and maintain an elusive sense of identity.

From the beginning of the novel, the Narrator finds himself caught in a web of expectations and prejudices that reduce him to a mere object or stereotype. He is seen as a “nigger boy” by those in positions of power, subjected to their whims and desires. The statement encapsulates the systemic racism and social hierarchy that permeate the world in which the Narrator lives, constantly reminding him of his marginalized position and limited agency.

Throughout the narrative, the Narrator’s life is marked by a series of encounters and experiences that reinforce the statement’s meaning. From his time at the college, where he is manipulated by the white trustees and treated as a pawn, to his involvement with the Brotherhood, where he becomes a faceless member serving the organization’s hidden agenda, the Narrator is consistently pushed to keep moving, serving the interests of others without consideration for his own desires or individuality.

The theme of running symbolizes the Narrator’s perpetual state of motion, both physically and metaphorically. He is constantly on the move, navigating a hostile and ever-shifting world that denies him a stable sense of self. He is expected to conform, adapt, and perform according to the expectations and desires of those in power. The pressure to keep running, to keep pushing forward despite the odds, becomes a defining characteristic of his life.

Moreover, the statement underscores the ways in which the Narrator’s identity is defined by others. His existence is shaped by the perspectives, prejudices, and stereotypes imposed upon him by a society that fails to see his humanity. It is a constant reminder that he is seen as a “nigger boy” first and foremost, stripped of his individuality, agency, and the opportunity to define himself on his own terms.


The phrase “To whom it may concern: perpetually propel this individual” encapsulates the pervasive dehumanization and subjugation experienced by the protagonist in Ralph Ellison’s novel “Invisible Man.” Throughout the narrative, the protagonist finds himself incessantly manipulated and utilized by those in positions of power, who view him merely as a means to their own ends. From the outset of the novel, the protagonist is thrust into a degrading and brutal battle royal, where he is compelled to entertain a white audience and compete against fellow black individuals. This traumatic event sets the tone for his ongoing struggle, as he is consistently pushed to keep moving by those who exploit him.

Additionally, the protagonist is subject to the expectations and ideologies of both white and black communities. Initially believing that adhering to the norms and ideals of the dominant white society would enable him to succeed and be acknowledged as an individual, he soon realizes the futility of his efforts. He becomes acutely aware that he is perceived solely as a representative of his race, expected to conform to predetermined stereotypes and fulfill specific roles.

Moreover, the protagonist’s affiliation with the Brotherhood further accentuates his status as a perpetual pawn. The organization utilizes his invisibility to their advantage, employing him as a symbol to manipulate and gain support from the masses. Exploiting his passion for societal change, they discard him when he no longer serves their purpose.

In essence, the phrase “To whom it may concern: perpetually propel this individual” underscores the pervasive dehumanization and exploitation endured by the protagonist in “Invisible Man.” He is incessantly used and manipulated, stripped of his agency and compelled to conform to societal expectations. His journey serves as a poignant exploration of the struggle for autonomy and recognition in a world that perpetually seeks to control and define him.


The theme of identity permeates the narrative, exploring the complex and multifaceted nature of individual and collective identity. Throughout the story, the protagonist grapples with questions of self-perception, societal expectations, and the struggle to establish a sense of self in a world that often renders him invisible.

The protagonist’s journey begins with a quest for self-discovery and the desire to define himself on his own terms. However, he quickly realizes that his identity is shaped by external forces, such as societal expectations and racial stereotypes. As an African American in a racially divided society, he is subjected to both overt and subtle forms of racism, which contribute to his invisibility and erode his sense of self.

The concept of invisibility symbolizes the protagonist’s struggle to be seen and recognized as an individual with agency and autonomy. He is rendered invisible by the dominant white society that fails to acknowledge his humanity beyond racial stereotypes. Furthermore, he is rendered invisible by the black community, which often views him through the lens of collective identity rather than as an individual with unique experiences and aspirations.

As the narrative unfolds, the protagonist grapples with multiple identities that are imposed upon him. From his early experiences at college, where he is manipulated by white figures in power, to his involvement with the Brotherhood, where he becomes a faceless member serving their hidden agenda, his identity is constantly shaped and reshaped by external influences. The novel underscores the dangers of conforming to prescribed identities and the importance of reclaiming one’s individuality.

Throughout his journey, the protagonist confronts the complexities of identity, questioning his role as a black man in a racially divided society. He navigates the tensions between assimilation and cultural heritage, struggling to reconcile the expectations placed upon him by society with his own desires and aspirations. Ultimately, he seeks to define himself outside the confines of societal expectations and stereotypes.

The theme of identity in “Invisible Man” is intricately connected to larger social and cultural issues. The novel explores the intersections of race, class, and power dynamics that shape individual and collective identities. It challenges societal norms and invites readers to question the impact of societal expectations on personal identity and self-perception.


In the novel, the narrator is especially searching for his identity in the race dominated society, unsure about where to turn to define himself. As the narrator states at the beginning of the novel, “All my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned something tries to tell what it was”. It is undoubtedly clear that the narrator’s blackness comprises a large part of his identity.

The theme of identity in “Invisible Man” explores the notion of self-discovery and self-acceptance. As the protagonist embarks on his journey, he undergoes a process of unmasking societal illusions and confronting his own preconceived notions of identity. He seeks to redefine himself outside of the confines of societal expectations and to reclaim his individuality.

However, invisibility doesn’t come from racism alone. For example, when the narrator decides to work with Liberty Paint Plant, he becomes excited with the hope of equality or finding a natural ground with the white. He feels that he has finally found his identify, unknown to him that it is the beginning of his endless search for one. It is search for identity that makes him stage Tod Clifton’s funeral ceremony without-consulting the Brotherhood. The Brotherhood also provides systematic way of thinking about the world that claims to be solution to racism and inequality.

The narrator at first, embraces the Brotherhood, thinking it would help him ascertain his missing identity as a member of the black race. The narrator at first embraces this ideology of the Brotherhood and structures his identity around it. However, he comes to discover that the Brotherhood is perfectly willing to sacrifice him for their own selfish interest, and it is not what it truly represents. Thus, this novel can be read not only as a story, but a black man’s struggle to find his identity or grow up and learn to be himself, against the backdrop of social pressure or racism.

The theme of identity in “Invisible Man” delves into the complex struggle of the protagonist to establish his sense of self in a society that renders him invisible. The novel explores the challenges and complexities of individual and collective identity, highlighting the influence of societal expectations, racial stereotypes, and the quest for personal autonomy. By delving into these themes, Ralph Ellison invites readers to reflect on their own notions of identity and the impact of societal forces on the construction of self.


In Emily Brontë’s novel “Wuthering Heights,” the consequences of characters’ actions are central to the development of the plot and the exploration of themes. The story presents a web of interconnected actions and their repercussions, demonstrating how choices and behaviors have far-reaching effects on individuals and generations. Here are several examples that illustrate the consequences of actions in the text:

(i) Heathcliff’s Revenge:
Heathcliff’s actions are driven by his desire for revenge against those he believes have wronged him, primarily the Earnshaw and Linton families. His cruel treatment of others, particularly Hindley Earnshaw and Edgar Linton, leads to a cycle of vengeance and suffering. As a result, Heathcliff loses his humanity, becomes consumed by bitterness, and inflicts pain on those around him. The consequences of his actions extend beyond his own life, impacting future generations and perpetuating a cycle of misery.

(ii) Hindley Earnshaw’s Abusive Behavior:
Hindley’s actions, fueled by jealousy and resentment toward Heathcliff, have severe consequences for both himself and others. His mistreatment of Heathcliff as a child and later as a master of Wuthering Heights contributes to Heathcliff’s desire for revenge. Furthermore, Hindley’s descent into alcoholism and neglect of his responsibilities lead to the deterioration of his own health and the decline of the Earnshaw family’s fortunes.

(iii) Catherine Earnshaw’s Decision to Marry Edgar Linton:
Catherine’s choice to marry Edgar Linton, motivated by social ambition and the desire for a comfortable life, has significant consequences. Her decision separates her from Heathcliff, her true love, and sets in motion a series of events that cause immense suffering for all involved. Catherine’s marriage to Edgar ultimately leads to her own unhappiness, as she cannot fully suppress her intense connection to Heathcliff. Additionally, it fuels Heathcliff’s desire for revenge, further intensifying the cycle of pain and destruction.

(iv) Isabella Linton’s Infatuation with Heathcliff:
Isabella’s infatuation with Heathcliff has devastating consequences for her. Ignoring warnings about his cruel nature, she elopes with him, hoping to escape her unhappy life at Thrushcross Grange. However, once married, she experiences Heathcliff’s brutality firsthand. Isabella becomes isolated and trapped in an abusive relationship, forced to endure physical and emotional torment. Her actions result in her own misery and serve as a cautionary tale about the repercussions of blind infatuation.

(v) Edgar Linton’s Attempt to Protect His Family:

Edgar’s actions are driven by his desire to protect his family, particularly his daughter, Cathy. He tries to shield her from the negative influence of Heathcliff and the destructive environment of Wuthering Heights. However, his attempts to maintain order and protect his loved ones inadvertently contribute to the continuation of the cycle of vengeance. His refusal to confront Heathcliff directly and his reliance on social conventions rather than addressing the underlying issues ultimately lead to the tragic consequences faced by his family.


In Emily Brontë’s masterpiece, “Wuthering Heights,” the narrative intricately weaves together actions and their consequences, delving into the profound impact of choices and behaviors on individuals and subsequent generations. The novel vividly portrays how characters’ actions unleash a chain of events with far-reaching implications. Let’s explore various instances that exemplify the consequences of actions within the text:

(i) Heathcliff’s Quest for Retribution:
Heathcliff’s actions are driven by an insatiable thirst for revenge against those he perceives as having wronged him, most notably the Earnshaw and Linton families. Through his merciless treatment of individuals such as Hindley Earnshaw and Edgar Linton, he initiates a vicious cycle of vengeance and suffering. Consequently, Heathcliff forfeits his own humanity, consumed by a deep-seated bitterness that inflicts pain upon all those within his orbit. The consequences of his actions extend beyond his lifetime, permeating future generations and perpetuating a legacy of anguish.

(ii) Hindley Earnshaw’s Cruelty:
Hindley’s actions, stemming from jealousy and resentment towards Heathcliff, bear grave consequences for himself and others. His mistreatment of Heathcliff during their formative years and later as the master of Wuthering Heights fuels Heathcliff’s thirst for retaliation. Furthermore, Hindley’s descent into alcoholism and dereliction of familial duties results in the erosion of his own well-being and the gradual decline of the Earnshaw family’s prosperity.

(iii) Catherine Earnshaw’s Decision to Wed Edgar Linton:
Catherine’s choice to marry Edgar Linton, motivated by social aspirations and the yearning for a comfortable life, yields profound consequences. Her decision estranges her from Heathcliff, her soulmate, setting in motion a series of tragic events that engender immense suffering for all involved. Catherine’s marriage to Edgar ultimately leads to her own dissatisfaction as she fails to suppress her profound connection to Heathcliff. Moreover, it fuels Heathcliff’s desire for vengeance, perpetuating the cycle of pain and devastation.

(iv) Isabella Linton’s Infatuation with Heathcliff:
Isabella’s infatuation with Heathcliff elicits dire consequences for her well-being. Ignoring cautionary warnings about his cruel nature, she elopes with him, seeking an escape from her discontented life at Thrushcross Grange. Yet, once married, she becomes a victim of Heathcliff’s brutality. Isabella finds herself isolated and ensnared in an abusive relationship, subjected to physical and emotional torment. Her actions result in her own misery, serving as a cautionary tale about the repercussions of blind infatuation.

(v) Edgar Linton’s Attempts to Safeguard His Family:
Edgar’s actions are fueled by his desire to protect his family, particularly his daughter, Cathy. He endeavors to shield her from the pernicious influence of Heathcliff and the malevolent atmosphere of Wuthering Heights. However, his efforts to uphold order and ensure the well-being of his loved ones inadvertently contribute to the perpetuation of the revenge cycle. Edgar’s reluctance to confront Heathcliff directly and his reliance on societal conventions, rather than addressing the underlying issues, ultimately culminate in tragic consequences for his family.


The relationship between Heathcliff and Lockwood is marked by a significant level of hostility. Lockwood, a gentleman from the city, rents Thrushcross Grange from Heathcliff, the mysterious and volatile owner of Wuthering Heights.

The initial encounter between Lockwood and Heathcliff sets the stage for their tense relationship. Lockwood, eager to introduce himself to his landlord, ventures to Wuthering Heights but is met with a cold reception. Heathcliff, wary of outsiders and possessing a surly disposition, responds to Lockwood’s attempts at conversation with hostility and dismissiveness.

As the story unfolds, Lockwood’s fascination with the enigmatic atmosphere of Wuthering Heights grows, but his attempts to engage with Heathcliff are met with resistance. Heathcliff, harboring deep-seated resentments and bitterness, holds no interest in establishing rapport with Lockwood, viewing him as an unwelcome intruder into his isolated world.

Their interactions are characterized by tension and clashes of temperament. Lockwood, initially curious about Heathcliff and the history of Wuthering Heights, becomes frustrated with his landlord’s hostility. Despite Lockwood’s attempts to bridge the gap, Heathcliff maintains a distant and antagonistic attitude, further exacerbating their strained relationship.

The hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood serves to highlight the stark contrast between their personalities and backgrounds. Lockwood represents the refined and conventional world, while Heathcliff embodies the wild and untamed nature of Wuthering Heights. The clash between their differing social statuses and perspectives fuels the animosity between them.

Throughout the novel, their hostile dynamic underscores the larger themes of social class, isolation, and the destructive power of unresolved anger. Lockwood’s attempts to understand the enigma of Heathcliff and Wuthering Heights are met with a wall of hostility, leaving him feeling like an outsider unable to penetrate the depths of Heathcliff’s troubled soul.

The hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood in “Wuthering Heights” stems from their conflicting personalities, backgrounds, and interactions. Lockwood’s curiosity and desire for connection are met with disdain and aloofness from the brooding Heathcliff. Their strained relationship serves as a reflection of the tumultuous and volatile world of Wuthering Heights, adding to the overall atmosphere of the novel and emphasizing the themes of social divide and emotional turmoil.


The hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood in Emily Brontë’s masterpiece “Wuthering Heights” spreads from their initial encounter and intensifies throughout the unfolding tale. This conflict emerges from their contrasting temperaments, backgrounds, and life experiences.

Lockwood, a sophisticated gentleman hailing from London, finds himself an outsider when he leases Thrushcross Grange, the neighboring estate to Wuthering Heights. Curious and inquisitive, he is captivated by the enigmatic ambiance of the moors and the unconventional nature of the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights. However, his initial attempts to forge a friendly rapport with Heathcliff are met with indifference and occasional rudeness.

Heathcliff, on the other hand, embodies a brooding and mysterious persona. As an orphan brought to Wuthering Heights by Mr. Earnshaw, he too is often viewed as an outsider. However, unlike Lockwood, Heathcliff shares an intense connection with the estate and its tumultuous history. He resents Lockwood’s intrusion into his solitude, regarding him as an unwelcome interloper.

Their enmity intensifies when Lockwood unwittingly becomes entangled in a confrontation between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw, the object of Heathcliff’s deep affection. Lockwood bears witness to the emotional turmoil between the two and is increasingly drawn into their intricate relationship. This intrusion further fuels Heathcliff’s ire towards Lockwood, as he perceives it as a violation of his privacy.

Additionally, the stark disparities in their social standings and upbringings contribute to the animosity between them. Lockwood personifies the upper-class gentry, while Heathcliff is perceived as a social outcast. These class distinctions exacerbate the tension between the two, amplifying the power dynamics at play.

Heathcliff’s profound resentment towards Lockwood stems from a combination of his isolated upbringing, his profound love for Catherine, and his general disdain for anyone he perceives as an intruder or threat to his dominion over Wuthering Heights. The hostilities between Heathcliff and Lockwood imbue the narrative with a heightened sense of complexity, accentuating the prevailing themes of isolation, obsession, and the relentless pursuit of revenge that permeate the novel.




NECO Literature Questions and Answers For Practice

The questions below are the Neco past questions and answers that will help you in your 2023 NECO Literature Questions.

The questions below are the NECO 2023 Literature Practice Questions. Go through them and be ready to score high in your NECO 2023 Literature in English Examination.

1. In Literature generally, a stock character is a character
A. who plays the role of a stock
B. broker or merchant
C. whose actions, speech, style, and role are predicable
D. whose manner is as stiff as a dry stockfish
E. Hypocrite

ANSWER: C (whose actions, speech, style, and role are predicable)

2. A light or amusing interlude inserted in the middle of a tragic play is called

A. a comic relief

B. an aggression

C.a contrast

D. digression

E. drama

ANSWER: A (comic relief)

3. When one author produces a mocking invitation of another author’s work we call his product
A. a conceit
B. an aggression
C. a contrast
D. a parody
E. Monologue

ANSWER: D (parody)

4. A type of poem which may be sung and which embodies a tale is called
A. sentimental poem
B. sonorous poetry
C. musical interlude
D. a ballad
E. satire

ANSWER: D (a Ballard)

5. Poetry is distinguished from prose fiction in that it
A. uses puns and persona
B. injects emotion and sentiment
C. does not have a hero
D. uses rhyme and meter
E. uses stanza

ANSWER: D (uses rhyme and meter)

6. Go, lovely rose,

Tell her that wastes her time and me

When I resembled her for thee,

How sweet and fair she seems to be

In the above lines, the rose is presented as having human characteristics or abilities. This is knowns as

A. climax
B. epigram
C. Personification
D. hyperbole
E. paradox

ANSWER: C (personification)

7. When a story is told at one level but has its true meaning at another level it is called
A. a horror story
B. a confusing story
C. an epic
D. an allegorical story
E. theme

ANSWER: D (allegorical story)

8. When an unrelated incident is inserted in a work of literature it is called
A. a dream sequence
B. a flashback
B. a digression
D. a masque
E. a prologue

ANSWER: C (digression)


Have a Target and Work Towards Actualizing it 

You have decided to pass NECO Literature 2023 and I am sure of that. Now, the next thing you should do is set targets.

You have told yourself, “I will score A in Neco Literature 2023”, that’s not all. You need to plan on how to make it happen. Create a timetable and master plan to achieve your goals.

Get the Recommended Textbook on Literature for 2023 NECO Examination

Normally, NECO recommends books for the examination. But apart from some parts of NECO Literature English where certain novels are compulsory, you are free to use any good Literature textbook to prepare for NECO 2023 exam.

Some textbooks are more difficult to understand. If you have any topic you are finding difficult to understand, then get a textbook that will simplify the topics and make life better for you.

 Do not Skip Literature Examples and Exercise you Will Come Across While Reading: 

Many candidates are fond of skipping exercises and even examples while studying textbooks. In fact, we like notebooks so much that we could ask, “can I read my notebook and pass NECO Literature 2023?” Don’t be scared of attempting exercises in Biology. Face the challenges.

If you have any questions about the NECO Literature Questions and Answers 2023, kindly drop your question in the comment box.

Last Updated on July 27, 2023 by Admin

Please Share

70 thoughts on “NECO Literature in English Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Theory and Objective)”

Leave a Comment Protection Status