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NECO Biology Questions and Answers For 2023/2024 (Theory and Objectives)

Biology NECO Questions 2023. I will be showing you the NECO Biology objective and theory questions and answers for free in this post. You will also understand how NECO Biology questions are set and how to answer them.

The National Examinations Council (NECO) is an examination body in Nigeria that conducts the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination and the General Certificate in Education in June/July and December/January respectively.

NECO Biology Question and Answers Essay and OBJ (Expo)

The 2023 NECO Biology expo will be posted here today 21st July during the NECO Biology examination. Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers.

NECO 2023 Biology Answers Loading...

OBJ Answers:







NECO Biology Essay Answers:


The cell theory states that:

– All living organisms are made up of one or more cells.

– The cell is the basic unit of life.

– All cells arise from pre-existing cells.


– Robert Hooke, who discovered cells in 1665 and coined the term “cell”.

– Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, who proposed the cell theory in 1839-1840.


– Large, brightly colored petals that attract insects.

– Nectar-producing glands to feed the insects.

– A strong, sweet fragrance to attract the insects.

– A landing platform for the insects to rest on.

– Pollen that is sticky and easily attaches to the insects.


– Ginger: Rhizome

– Banana: Rhizome

– Sweet potato: Tuber


– The mouth mechanically breaks down the bread by chewing and mixes it with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down the carbohydrates in the bread.

– The esophagus moves the food down to the stomach, where it is mixed with stomach acid and enzymes that further break down the bread.

– The small intestine absorbs the nutrients from the bread, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, into the bloodstream.

– The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes from the remaining food waste, forming feces.

– The rectum stores feces until they can be eliminated through the anus.


Amoeba —> Hydra —> Tilapia —> Toad —> Snake.


(i) Small, lightweight seeds that can be easily carried by the wind.

(ii) Hairs or wings on the fruit that increase surface area and help to catch the wind.

(iii) A dry, papery fruit that splits open easily to release the seeds.



To determine if the shoot of a plant is positively phototropic.


A potted plant, a light source, a ruler, a marker.


(i) Place the plant in a dark room for 24 hours to ensure that it is not positively or negatively phototropic.

(ii) Place the light source at a fixed distance from the plant, with the light shining directly on the plant’s shoot.

(iii) Turn on the light source and leave it on for 24 hours.

(iv) After 24 hours, measure the distance between the tip of the shoot and the light source.

(v) Mark the new position of the shoot tip on the ruler.

(vi) Repeat the experiment two more times, moving the light source to a different position each time.


The shoot of the plant will grow towards them light source, bending in the direction of the light.


The shoot of a plant is positively phototropic and grows towards a light source.



=Aerobic Respiration=

(i) Occurs in the presence of oxygen

(ii) Produces a large amount of ATP

(iii) Carbon dioxide and water are produced as waste products

=Anaerobic Respiration=

(i) Occurs in the absence of oxygen

(ii) Produces a small amount of ATP

(iii) Lactic acid or ethanol is produced as a waste product.


– Rivers

– Lakes



=Complete Metamorphosis=

(i) Four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult.

(ii) Larva looks completely different from the adult.

=Incomplete Metamorphosis=

(i) Three stages: egg, nymph, adult.

(ii) Nymph looks similar to the adult, just smaller.


– Aim: To determine if chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis to take place.

– Apparatus: Two plants of the same species, one with leaves covered in aluminum foil, a light source, test tube, water, and a beaker.

– Method/procedure: Place one plant in a dark room and cover its leaves with aluminum foil. Place the other plant in front of a light source. After a few hours, pluck a leaf from each plant and place them in separate test tubes filled with water. Place the test tubes in a beaker and keep them in the dark.

– Observation: After a few hours, observe the test tubes to see which one has produced more oxygen bubbles.

– Conclusion: If the test tube with the leaf from the plant exposed to light produces more oxygen bubbles, then chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis to take place.


(i) Overuse of synthetic fertilizers

(ii) Overgrazing

(iii) Deforestation

(iv) Soil erosion


(i) Hearing loss

(ii) Sleep disturbance.


(i) Crop diversity: Planting different crops in the same field over time to avoid the buildup of pests and diseases.

(ii) Soil health: Planting crops that have different nutrient requirements to maintain soil fertility and prevent soil erosion.

(iii) Pest management: Planting crops that are not susceptible to the same pests and diseases in succession.


(i) Reduced leaves or spines to minimize water loss through transpiration.

(ii) Thick cuticles and waxy coatings to reduce water loss through the epidermis.

(iii) Deep roots to tap into underground water sources.

(iv) CAM photosynthesis to reduce water loss during photosynthesis.

(v) Ability to enter dormancy during drought periods.


(i) Similarity in bone structure between birds and reptiles, especially in the skull and pelvis.

(ii) Presence of scales on bird feet and legs, which are also found in reptiles.

(iii) Similarity in egg-laying and incubation between birds and reptiles.


(i) Detoxification of harmful substances in the blood.

(ii) Production of bile to aid in digestion.

(iii) Storage of glycogen, vitamins, and minerals.

(iv) Regulation of blood glucose levels.

(v) Production of blood clotting factors.


(i) Reforestation: Planting new trees in areas where forests have been cleared or degraded.

(ii) Reduced impact logging: Using sustainable logging practices that minimize damage to the forest ecosystem.

(iii) Protected areas: Establishing and maintaining protected areas for wildlife and biodiversity conservation.

(iv) Community forestry: Encouraging local communities to manage forests sustainably for their own benefit and for the benefit of future generations.

No (5)


(i) Protection: the calyx protects the flower bud before it opens and the developing fruit after fertilization.

(ii) Support: the sepals of the calyx can provide support for the petals and reproductive structures.


(i) Insulin: regulates blood sugar levels.

(ii) Estrogen: regulates female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics.

(iii) Testosterone: regulates male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics.

(iv) Adrenaline: prepares the body for “fight or flight” response to stress.

(v) Melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycles.


(i) Gene therapy: correcting genetic disorders by introducing functional genes into the patient’s cells.

(ii) Predictive medicine: using genetic testing to identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases and develop personalized prevention or treatment plans.


(i) Large surface area: to maximize light absorption.

(ii) Thin and flat shape: to reduce the distance that light needs to penetrate into the leaf.

(iii) Chlorophyll pigments: to absorb light energy and convert it into chemical energy.


NECO Biology Questions and Answers For Practice



The questions below are the NECO past questions and answers that will help you in your 2023 NECO Biology Questions.

1. Plants are classified into the following classes except


(b) Coelenterate.

(c) pteridophyta.

(d) thallophyta.

(e) Spermatophyte.

2. The cell wall of plants is rigid due to the presence of?

(a) Cambium

(b) cellulose

(c) cortex

(d) chloroplast

(e) phloem

3. The structure responsible for the transportation of mineral salt from the root to other parts of the plant is?


(b) phloem

(c) pith

(d) sclerenchyma

(e) xylem.

4. Which of the following cell organelles traps sunlight energy in plant?


(b) Endoplasmic reticulum

(c) Mitochondrion

(d) Ribosome (e) Vacuole

5. The following conditions are necessary for photosynthesis except

(a) Carbon(iv)oxide.

(b) chlorophyll

(c) light energy

(d) oxygen

(e) water

6. Which of the following organisms carries out photosynthesis?

(a) Amoeba


(c) paramecium

(d) plasmodium

(e) Volvox

7. Which of these is an amphibian?

(a) Fish

(b) Lizard

(c) Rat

(d) Snake

(e) Toad

8. A flower with two or more fused carpels is called

(a) Apocarpous

(b) monocarpous

(c) polycarpous

(d) pistillate

(e) syncarpous

9. The response of plants to the stimulus of touch is called?

(a) Chemotropism

(b) geotropism

(c) hydrotropism

(d) phototropism

(e) thigmotropism

10. Which of the following is a bryophyte?

(a) Bladder wort

(b) Fly trap

(c) Liver wort

(d) Pitcher

(e) Sundew

11. Cellular respiration occurs in the

(a) Chloroplast

(b) endoplasmic reticulum

(c) food vacuole

(d) mitochondrion

(e) nucleus

12. In a moss plant, spores are produced in the

(a) Capsule

(b) leaf

(c) rhizoid

(d) seta

(e) stalk

13. Exoskeleton is a characteristic feature of

(a) Amoeba

(b) earthworm

(c) hydra

(d) millipede

(e) tapeworm

14. Which of the following influences growth in plants?

(a) Acetic acid

(b) Auxins

(c) Chlorophyll

(d) Ethylene

(e) Latex

15. Land snail belongs to the phylum

(a) Annelida

(b) Arthropoda

(c) Echinodermata

(d) Mollusca

(e) nematode

16. The opening of the anthers and stigmas of a bisexual flower at the same time is called

(a) Cleistogamy

(b) dichogamy

(c) homogamy

(d) protandry

(e) protogyny

17. The following are the effect of auxins on plant except in

(a) Flowering

(b) fruiting without fertilization

(c) ripening of fruits

(d) root formation

(e) stem elongation

2020 neco  biology questions and answers

Use the diagram below to answer questions 18 and 19.

18. The  diagram represents the internal structure of a

(a) Flower

(b) fruit

(c) leaf

(d) root

(e) stem

19. The part labeled I is the

(a) Cortex

(b) endodermis

(c) phloem (d) root hair (e) xylem

20. Which of these is a water soluble vitamin?

(a) A 

(b) C

(c) D

(d) E

(e) K

21. The following diseases are airborne except

(a) Clolera

(b) measles

(c) meningitis

(d) pneumonia

(e) small pox.

22. The excretory organ of insects is called

(a) Contractile vacuole

(b) flame cell

(c) kidney

(d) malphighian tubule

(e) nephridium

23. Which of these animals undergo metamorphosis

(a) Fish

(b) fowl

(c) lizard

(d) Rat

(e) Toad

24. Villi are finger-like structures found in the

(a) Large intestine

(b) rectum

(c) small intestine

(d) stomach

(e) tongue.

25. In mammals, sperms are formed in the

(a) Cowper’s gland

(b) scrotal sac.

(c) seminal vesicle 

(d) seminiferous tubules

(e) vas deferens

26. Which of the following is not a part of the mammalian brain?

(a) Cerebellum

(b) cerebrum

(c) Olfactory lobe

(d) spinal cord

(e) Thalamus

27. In plant, Chlorosis is caused by the deficiency of

(a) Iron

(b) magnesium

(c) nitrogen

(d) potassium

(e) Sulphur

28. Which of the following diseases is not sexually transmitted

(a) AIDS

(b) Hepatitis

(c) Herpes

(d) influenza

(e) Syphilis

29. Which of the following is not a caste in a termitarium.

(a) Drones

(b) king

(c) Queen

(d) soldiers

(e) workers


30. The structure responsible for excretion in tape worm is called

(a) Cell membrane

(b) contractile vacuole

(c) flame cell

(d) malphigian tubule

(e) nephridium

31. The mode of nutrition of mushroom is

(a) autotrophic

(b) epiphytic

(c) parasitic

(d) saprophytic

(e) symbiotic

32. The earthworm is an example of

(a) Annelida

(b) Coelenterata

(c) Mollusca

(d) nematoda

(e) Platyhelminthes

33. Fat and oil are also known as

(a) Amino

(b) fatty acids

(c) glycerol

(d) lipids

(e) carbohydrates

34. Gaseous exchange in the lungs occurs at the

(a) Alveolus



(d) larynx

(e) trachea

35. The following are pigment except

(a) Auxin

(b) chlorophyll

(c) chromatophores

(d) haemoglobin

(e) melanin

neco biology questions and answers

Use the diagram  below to answer questions 36 – 38.

36. The type of placentation shown above is found in

(a) cana lily

(b) orange

(c) pawpaw

(d) pride of Barbados

(e) sunflower

37. the part labeled x is the

(a) ovule

(b) petal

(c) placenta

(d) sepal

(e) stamen

38. the type of placentation represented in the diagram is

(a) axile

(b) basal

(c) free central

(d) marginal

(e) parietal

39. the growth that occurs at the tip of shoot and root is called

(a) allometric

(b) apical

(c) isometric

(d) primary

(e) secondary

40. carnassial teeth are found in

(a) dog

(b) cow


(d) man

(e) sheep

41. Which of the following bones is not a part of axial skeleton?

(a) Backbone

(b) Limbs


(d) Skull

(e) Sternum  

Use the diagram below to answer questions 42 and 43

2020 neco biology questions and answers

42. The part labeled ii is the

(a) Bone

(b) hyaline cartilage

(c) ligament

(d) synovial  cavity

(e) synovial membrane

43. The function of the part labeled iii is to

(a) Soften the bones

(b) join bones together

(c) lubricate joints

(d) protect bones from wearing

(e) reduce friction at joints

44. The part that supplies food and oxygen to the eye is

(a) Choroids

(b) cornea

(c) lens

(d) pupil

(e) retina

45. The part of the male reproductive system that stores sperm is

(a) Cowper’s gland

(b) epididymis

(c) prostate gland

(d) seminal  vesicle

(e) vas deferens.

46. An organ in bird that grinds its food is

(a) Caecum

(b) crop

(c) gizzard

(d) kidney

(e) liver

47. Which of the following animals exhibit basking

(a) Cat

(b) Cow

(c) Duck

(d) Eagle

(e) Lizard

48. The following are functions of the sympathetic nervous system except

(a) Dilation of pupil of eye.

(b) inhibition of saliva secretion

(c) reduction of blood pressure

(d) reduction of urine output

(e) stimulation of ejaculation

49. The following homeostatic mechanisms are carried out by mammals except

(a) Excretion

(b) osmoregulation

(c) pH regulation

(d) reproduction

(e) thermoregulation

50. Part of the brain that controls blood pressure is called

(a) Cerebellum

(b) cerebrum

(c) corpus callosum

(d) medulla oblongata

(e) pons varolii

51. Haemorrhage is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin

(a) A

(b) C

(c) D

(d) E

(e) K

52. The control method of pests using predators is called

(a) Biological

(b) chemical

(c) cultural

(d) mechanical

(e) physical

53. The following are vectors except

(a) Black fly

(b) butterfly

(c) housefly

(d) mosquito

(e) tsetse fly

54. The deficiency of proteins in a developing child result in

(a) Beri beri

(b) kwashiorkor

(c) night blindness

(d) rickets

(e) scurvy

55. The theory of “use and disuse” of body parts was propounded by

(a) Carl Linneaus

(b) Charles Darwin

(c) Gregor Mendel

(d) Jean Lamarck

(e) Robert Hooke

56. The knowledge of heredity and variation are not required in

(a) Blood transfusion

(b) crime detection

(c) determination of paternity

(d) longevity

(e) marriage

57. Which of these is not a pollutant

(a) Carbon dioxide

(b) Lead oxide

(c) Nitrogen gas

(d) Nitrogen oxide

(e) sulphur dioxide

58. The topmost layer of a typical soil profile is

(a) Clay

(b) coarse sand

(c) fine sand

(d) gravel

(e) humus

59. Plants that survive in marine habitats are called

(a) Halophytes

(b) hydrophytes

(c) mesophytes

(d) saprophytes

(e) xerophytes

60. The felling of trees in a forest is called

(a) Afforestation

(b) deforestation

(c) desertification

(d) forest pruning

(e) re-afforestation        



Answer any three questions only

1a. State one role each of the following in photosynthesis

(i) Sunlight

(ii) Chlorophyll

b. List five types of bones found in the forearm of man

c. Mention three functions of a worker caste in termitarium

d. Define ecosystem

e. Draw a well labelled diagram (8-10cm long) of the nephron

2a. Define the following

(i) Gene

(ii) Implantation

(iii) Species

(iv) Saprophytes

b (i) State four functions of the mammalian skeleton

(ii) Mention two muscles that bring about movement of a forearm

(iii) Name three digestive enzymes found in the small intestine and state one function of each

3a. (i) Mention three diseases of the liver

(ii) In a tabular form, state five differences between plant and animal cells

b. Using annotated diagrams only, illustrate the carbon cycle.

c. (i) List two types of supporting tissues in plant

(ii) Give two characteristics of a reptile

4a. Define the following terms

(i) Diffusion

(ii) Osmosis

(iii) plasmolysis

b (i) State four effects of overcrowding

(ii) mention two ways of conserving wildlife.

(iii) Give two examples of social animals

c (i) Define metamorphosis

(ii) List two examples of insects that undergo incomplete metamorphosis

(iii) Give two examples of a berry fruit

5a. (i) Draw a well labelled diagram (8-10cm long) of the human alimentary canal

(ii) Complete the table below

Part of digestive systemEnzymes present
3Small intestine

b. T T and t t are monohybrid plants representing tallness and shortness respectively

  1. By means of crossing, show the F1 generation
  2. Using punnet square method, show the F2 generation
  3. Give the phenotypic ratio of the F1 and F2 generations shown above

That’s all about NECO Biology Questions and Answers for 2022 (Theory and Objectives). If you have any questions, kindly drop your question in the comment box.

Last Updated on July 21, 2023 by Admin

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92 thoughts on “NECO Biology Questions and Answers For 2023/2024 (Theory and Objectives)”

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