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WAEC GCE Agric Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Essay and Objectives)

WAEC GCE Agric Questions and Answers 2023. I will be showing you the WAEC GCE Agricultural Science objective and theory questions for free. You will also understand how WAEC GCE Agric questions are set and many more examination details.

The West African Examination Council is an examination body that sets questions annually from areas student should, after their studies in the senior secondary school, be able to write and pass without stress.

WAEC GCE Agric Science answers and questions Objectives and Essay will be provided here and the authenticity of this WAEC GCE 2023 Agric solutions to questions has been tested and confirmed to be sure.

See: WAEC GCE Timetable

WAEC GCE Agric Essay And Objective Questions and Answers 2023 (EXPO)

The WAEC GCE Agric Science answers will be posted here during the WAEC GCE Agriculture exam.

WAEC GCE Nov/December Agric Answers Loading… Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers

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(1ai) Finance:
(i) The lack of credit facilities or the high interest rates on available loans can hinder farmers from purchasing essential inputs
(ii) Inssuficient allocation of funds by the governments and private sectors to support agricultural development
(iii) Unequal Distribution of Financial Resources can hinder the development of agriculture
(iv) Unpredictable weather conditions or pest infestations may make financial institutions hesitant to provide loans to farmers

(1aii) Storage Facilities:
(i) Insufficient storage infrastructure, such as warehouses and cold storage facilities.
(ii) Lack of modern storage technologies, such as climate-controlled storage and efficient packaging methods
(iii) Inefficient transportation systems make it challenging to transport agricultural produce from farms to storage facilities and markets quickly.
(iv) Limited access to markets may discourage investments in quality storage facilities that could enhance the value and marketability of their goods.

Farm planning is the process of systematically organizing and managing various aspects of agricultural activities to achieve specific goals. It involves making informed decisions about resource allocation, production methods, and overall farm management.

(i) Topography
(ii) Soil type
(iii) Climate condition
(iv) Nearness to market
(v) Financial resources
(vi) Labor and Skill Availability

(i) Farm planning optimizes resource allocation and enhances efficiency in agricultural activities.
(ii) It helps farmers make informed decisions on crop selection and land use based on land suitability assessments.
(iii) By considering financial requirements and budgeting, farm planning ensures proper financing for various farming needs.
(iv) Understanding climatic conditions through farm planning allows for timely and strategic decisions on planting, irrigation, and harvesting.
(v) Market research and access considerations in farm planning enable farmers to align production with market demands, increasing profitability.
(vi) Incorporating sustainability practices in farm planning promotes long-term environmental balance and enhances the overall resilience of the farm ecosystem.

Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation:
(i) Through the association of leguminous plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules.
(ii) Through the association of non-leguminous plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in specialized structures.

Electrical Discharge:
(i) Through lightning strikes, which convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate or nitrite.
(ii) Through electrochemical reactions in the soil, converting atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium ions.

(i) Through the decomposition of organic matter by soil microorganisms, releasing ammonium ions.
(ii) Through the breakdown of proteins and urea present in animal waste, releasing ammonium ions.

Monocotyledonous crops have a single seed leaf while dicotyledonous crops have two seed leaves.

(I) Monocotyledonous crops:
(i) Rice
(ii) Corn
(iii) Wheat

(II) Dicotyledonous crops:
(i) Soybean
(ii) Cotton
(iii) Tomato

(i) Excessive use of synthetic fertilizers.
(ii) Overgrazing by livestock.
(iii) Deforestation and land clearing.
(iv) Poor irrigation and water management practices.
(v) Improper crop rotation and monoculture planting.
(vi) Soil erosion due to improper tilling and land management.
(vii) Heavy pesticide and herbicide use.
(viii) Inadequate waste management and disposal of agricultural by-products.

(i) Green Manure:
Green manure refers to crops or plants, such as legumes or cover crops, grown and plowed into the soil while still green, adding organic matter, improving soil structure, and enhancing nutrient content.

(ii) Farmyard Manure:
Farmyard manure consists of organic materials like animal dung, bedding, and other farm residues that undergo decomposition, providing essential nutrients and improving soil fertility when applied to farmland.

(iii) Compost:
Compost is a type of organic manure produced through the decomposition of organic waste materials, including kitchen scraps and plant residues, resulting in a nutrient-rich, humus-like material that improves soil structure and fertility.

(3bi) Advantages of Mixed Farming:
(i) Diversification of Income Sources.
(ii) Enhanced Nutrient Cycling and Soil Fertility.
(iii) Risk Reduction through Crop-Livestock Integration.
(iv) Efficient Utilization of Resources.
(v) Increased Resilience to Market Fluctuations.

(3bii) Disadvantages of Mixed Farming:
(i) Complexity in Management and Planning.
(ii) Potential for Disease Transmission Between Crops and Livestock.
(iii) Competition for Limited Resources.
(iv) Skill Intensiveness in Managing Different Enterprises.
(v) Market Risks Associated with Varied Agricultural Products.

Fishery regulations are rules and guidelines established by government authorities to manage and control fishing activities, ensuring sustainable exploitation of fishery resources and conservation of aquatic ecosystems.

(i) Ban on the use of toxic chemicals/poisons
(ii) Landing tax is paid based on the total catch and sizes of fish at landing sites
(iii) Fishing areas are allocated to individual fishermen so as to curb indiscriminate interference within the large fishing areas
(iv) No vessels (except canoes) shall fish within the first two nautical miles of the territorial waters a country’s continental shelf
(v) No person shall operate or navigate any motorised fishing boat within the territorial water of other country unless a license in respect of that vessel has been issued
(vi) Identified breeding section of water is normally restricted from fishing
(vii) Fishing activities is restricted during rainy season
(viii) The use of prescribed mesh size in fishing to protect young fish
(ix) Ban on the discharge of pollutants or toxic materials into a country’s terririal water
(x) Ban on the use of explosives in fishing except for the purpose of research
(xi) Ban on the use of electric fishing except for the purpose of research
(xii) Coastal areas to be constantly under surveillance to restrict foreign vessels from exploitation


(i)Artificial insemination is a reproductive technique that involves the deliberate introduction of semen from a male animal into the reproductive tract of a female animal using techniques other than natural mating.

(ii)Artificial insemination is a reproductive technique that involves introducing sperm into a female’s reproductive tract to achieve pregnancy.


(i)Potential introduction of infections during the process.
(ii)Requires trained personnel for proper handling and execution.
(iii)Initial setup costs for equipment and facilities can be high.
(iv)Emotional stress due to repeated attempts
(v)Overuse of certain high-performing donors can reduce genetic diversity.
(vi)may not always guarantee conception.


(i)Smallholder Farmers
(ii)Large-scale Farmers
(iii)Cooperatives and Farmer Groups
(iv)Rural Communities
(v)Women in Agriculture
(vi)Youth in Agriculture


(i)Ponds and Lakes
(ii)Rivers and Streams
(iii)Wells and Boreholes
(iv)Watering Troughs or Tanks

(i)It aids in the breakdown of food, facilitating digestion and nutrient absorption.
(ii)Water helps regulate body temperature in livestock
(iii)It plays a role in various metabolic processes within the animal’s body.
(iv)It essential for lactating animals to produce sufficient milk for their young.
(v)Water is vital for proper hydration.(6ai)
Agricultural insurance is a risk management tool that provides financial protection to farmers against losses arising from natural disasters, pests, diseases, or other unforeseen events affecting crop or livestock production.

(i) Limited Awareness and Understanding.
(ii) Inadequate Data for Risk Assessment.
(iii) High Premium Costs.
(iv) Insufficient Insurance Products Tailored to Smallholder Farmers.
(v) Lack of Trust in Insurance Institutions.
(vi) Government Involvement and Policy Support.
(vii) Climate change and unpredictable weather patterns

(6bi) Increase in Income of Consumers:
(i) Demand is Likely to increase as consumers have higher purchasing power.
(ii) Supply may increase due to higher profitability, encouraging more sweet potato cultivation.

(6bii) High Cost of Farm Inputs:
(i) Demand may decrease as production costs rise, reducing consumer affordability.
(ii) Supply may decrease as farmers face challenges in sustaining production with expensive inputs.

(i) Inadequate Crop Rotation.
(ii) Monoculture Farming Practices.
(iii) Poor Soil Health and Nutrient Imbalance.
(iv) Lack of Resistant Crop Varieties.
(v) Climatic Conditions Favorable to Pests.
(vi) Improper Storage and Handling Practices.

(i) Bacteria.
(ii) Antibiotics.
(iii) Chemical Residues
(iv) Mycotoxins


Note: The answers below are the 2020 Nov/Dec answers.

Choose the corresponding option from your question.

1— stimulation of infrastructural growth
2— outright purchase
3—Purpose of selling in order to make profit
4— cutting of bold wood
5— Clean and store in cool and dry
6— encouraging cooperative farming
7— human power
8- drainage
9- inadequate capital
10- can only be used where it is found
11- Jute
12- acidity increases from PH8 to
13- basalt
14- 50%
15-dissolution of plant nutrient
16- increase in soil acidity resulting
18- increase vegetative growth in plant
19- reduce salt content
20- cocoa and oil palm

No (1a)

(i)they carry out research to improve or develop breeds of Animals.

(ii) extension project are founded and funded by them 

(iii) provide basic amenities e;g water, feeder roads

(iv)they provide chemicals for the control of weeds and insect 


(i) expensive to practice

(ii)land problem

(iii)poor storage facilities

(iv)pests and disease attack

(v)it causes pollution

(vi)it leads to unemployment because machines are used 


This is the removal of tree


(i)cause erosion

(ii)leads to loss of nutrients

(iii)exposure the soil to sunlight 

(iv)reduce water percolation rate 

(v)reduce the amount of rainfall

(vi)reduce wild life population

No (2a)

 i) *Disc plough* 

1) it is design to work in all types of soil functions such as soil breaking

2)it is used to open, the new fields 

3) it can be used easily at rocky and rooted areas 

ii) *Disc Horrow*

1)it is used for cutting edges 

2) it is used to till the soil where crops to be planted 

3 it is also used to chop unwanted weeds or crop remainders 

iii) Rider 

1) it’s used for cultivating small ginger 

2)it is used for gathering and heaping the loose soil 

3) it is an implement which cuts and turn the soil into opposite direction


I) it influences the availability of many nutrients 

ii) photosynthesis 

iii) maintain temperature

iv) soil air is important because it is needed by many of the micro-organism that release plants nutrients to the soil 


i) mechanical tiling or plowing 

ii) control burning a weed infested to clear it for seeding  of desirable plants 

iv) it involves natural pest population control method.

No (4)

i. Staking is the practice of driving a stake or rod into the ground close to a plant to provide support for its stems.

ii. Hardening off is a term used to refer to the processes necessary for a plant to become acclimated to its environment. In the spring, it’s common practice to gradually accustom greenhouse vegetable seedlings to full sunlight and drying winds before planting them.

iii. earthing up or ridging is the technique in agriculture and horticulture of piling soil up around the base of a plant. It can be done by hand (usually using a hoe), or with powered machinery, typically a tractor attachment.


No 4
No 5


WAEC GCE Agriculture Practice Questions and Answers

The questions below are not exactly 2023 WAECE Agric science questions and answers but likely WAEC GCE Agric repeated questions and answers. These questions are strictly for practice.

 1. Oestrogen in female animals is not responsible for

A. development of secondary sexual characteristics

B. on set of heat period

C. milk let – down after parturition

D. development of udder

2. A beef cow gained 75 kg over a period of two months and two days. What is its average weight gain?

A. 0.83 kg

B. 1.21 kg

C. 1.28 kg

D. 2. 25kg

3. A disadvantage of natural incubation is that

A. the eggs cannot be candled

B. the chicks are less healthy

C. the brooding hens sometimes abandon the eggs

D. it takes a longer time for eggs to hatch

4. Ruminants fed on dried grasses are given feed supplements to

A. increase in water intake

B. provide bulk to feed

C. reduce microbial activity

D. provide deficient nutrients


5. Which of the following animal disease is not associated with malnutrition?

A. Aspergillosis

B. Acidosis

C. Milk fever

D. Rickets

6. The type of energy obtained from the sun for agricultural uses is known as

A. potential energy

B. mechanical energy

C. nuclear energy

D. solar energy

E. kinetic energy

7. Which of the following implements will be used for the next farm operation after clearing a new farmland?

A. harrow

B. ridger

C. cultivator

D. planter

E. plough

8. Which of the following cannot be used to rub the metal parts of farm tools before storage?

A. grease

B. palm oil

C. water

D. petroleum jelly

E. spent engine oil

9. The common surveying equipment for farmland includes the following except

A. ranging pole

B. prismatic compass

C. measuring tape

D. gunter’s chain

E. spade

10. An example of fungal disease of stored grains is

A. rosette

B. wilt

C. soft rot

D. damping off

E. mould

If you have any questions about the 2023 WAEC GCE Agric Science questions and answers, do well to let us know in the comment box.

Last Updated on December 1, 2023 by Admin

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11 thoughts on “WAEC GCE Agric Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Essay and Objectives)”

  1. Please drop the agric practical question we are starting on Friday

  2. Pls I need the practical for gce 2023 second series

  3. Pls can u give me agric past question and answer for 2023 at 10:30 pls

  4. Please am writing external neco can you help me?? Am starting on Monday so can u be send me answers?? Please

  5. Please can u just drop the answer now we have started written the exam


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