NECO Geography Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Essay and Objectives) - Bekeking
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NECO Geography Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Essay and Objectives)

NECO Geography Questions and Answers 2023. I will be showing you NECO Geography objective and theory questions for free. You will also understand how NECO Geography Practical (map reading) questions are set and many more examination details.

The National Examination Council is an examination body that set questions annually from areas students should, after their studies in senior secondary school, be able to write and pass without stress.

NECO Geography answers and questions Objectives and Essay will be provided here and the authenticity of this NECO 2023 Geography solutions to questions has been tested and confirmed to be sure.

See: NECO Timetable

NECO Geography Questions and Answers 2023 (EXPO)

The 2023 NECO Geography expo will be posted here during the NECO Geography examination. Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers.

Note: The answers below are for 2022 NECO exam.

Today’s NECO Human and Regional Geography Answers: Loading…

Today’s Answers:

A conurbation is a region comprising several metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area
(i) Shortage of residential housing: Conurbation allows the movement of people from the rural areas to the cities and towns which in turn results in population increase. An increase in the number of people living in urban areas often results in continuous scarcity of houses and a large sparse of land is also demanded further spread of settlement.

(ii) Increasing levels of pollution: Pollution of air, land and water is a major problem in most developing world cities. The drive to industrialisation brings with it inevitable problems, especially as legislation to protect the environment is often non-existent or rarely enforced. Furthermore, the hidden economy can add to the levels of pollution as small, unlicensed industries are set up in people’s homes or on rooftops. These industries release their pollutants into the air, land and water.

(iii) High Rate of Unemployment: The number of people living in cities who are capable of working is higher than the number of jobs available. As more people flood the cities in search of elusive jobs, the unemployment rate keeps growing. A significant percentage of Nigerian youths are unemployed and most of them stay in urban areas

(i) Housing development: Provision of more houses and social amenities at affordable rates to the people

(ii) Pollution control: Industrial areas should be created to limit the areas where industrial emissions are produced. Governments should aslo develop some strict laws guiding refuse dumping in an open environment
(iii) Creation of employment opportunities: Government should create more jobs by establishing industries, supporting private investors, and should encourage entrepreneurship by providing more funds in the city.

(i) Lack of Proper Drainage Facilities: Erosion which is caused by a lack of proper drainage facilities such as gutters is another major thing that has destroyed the state of Nigerian roads. Proper drainage facilities should be made available along with road networks so that water would no longer settle on the roads and wash away the asphalt surface.

(ii) Poor State of Roads: This is one of the major problems faced in this means of transportation. The majority of the roads are left in very bad shape as a result of erosions, portholes and inadequate drainage systems. The roads with potholes and uneven edges or surfaces make transportation not only difficult and stressful but also dangerous as some of those roads are from major sites of accidents.

(iii) Effects of Climate Change: Climate change has an impact on road transportation. Increased temperatures can make pavements soften and expand. This can create potholes, especially in high-traffic areas and can cause bridge joints to become stressed. These impacts can make the construction and maintenance of roads and highways very expensive.

(iv) Lack of proper maintenance: Poor land transport system maintenance is a major problem contributing to the poor state of transport infrastructure. The government fails to attend to them on time. Due to poor maintenance and low-quality materials, which have been used for repairs, over time the condition of such roads keeps getting worse.
(i) Land transportation is substantially cheaper compared to air transportation
(ii) Land transportation is more suitable for shorter distances and provides easy access to rural areas
(iii) Land transportation provides easy door-to-door and flexible services
(iv) Land transportation is adequate for moving goods in relatively smaller quantities and requires less packaging.

(i) Mobility of Labour and Capital: Transport reduces the rigours of immobility of certain factors of production. Mobility of labour and capital increases with the development of transport. An efficient network of transport services encourages the movement of people from one place to another.

(ii) Specialisation and Division of Labour: Transport helps each region and country to make optimum and efficient use of its national resources. The movement of goods and people from one place to another leads to specialisation and division of labour which results in minimum wastage of resources and a reduction in the cost of production.

(iii) Development of Agriculture: Transport helps in the development of agriculture. Agricultural products have grown to a large extent due to the efficient means of transport. Transport facilities help in the application of modern techniques in agriculture, and improve the quality of seeds and fertilizers.

(iv) Stability in prices: Transport facilities iron out wild fluctuations. Goods can be transported to places where there is scarcity and the prices are high from places where there is surplus and the prices are low. The movement of goods helps in maintaining uniform prices throughout the country and further tends to equalise the prices of goods throughout the world.
(v) Employment Opportunities and Increase in the National Income: The various means of transport employ millions of people throughout the world. The economic development of a country depends upon the improved means of transport. Thus, transport contributes substantially to the national income of the nations.

Manufacturing industry is an industry involved in the process of converting raw materials or semi-finished products into finished products through the use of labour, machinery, tools and biological or chemical processing or formulation.

(i) Labour intensive: Most industries require a large amount of labour to manufacture products or services and the labour has a higher proportion of labour input than capital input which helps to create more employment.

(ii) Mainly small-scale industries: Small scale industries comprise small enterprises that manufacture goods or services with the help of relatively smaller machines and a few workers and employees which enables per capita income and resource utilization in the economy.

(iii) Production of consumer goods: Industrial goods are based on the demand for the consumer goods they help to produce. These consumer goods produced are final products or end products which consumers can purchase for use at home, school, work or for recreational or personal use.

(i) Heavy industry is a large-scale industry WHILE Light industry is a small-scale industry.

(ii) Heavy industry produces heavy or bulky goods WHILE Light industry produces relatively lightweight goods.

(iii) Heavy industry requires huge capital, a large quantity of raw material and sophisticated machinery WHILE Light industry requires less capital and less number of workers

(i) Protection of Forests: The existing forests should be protected. Apart from commercial cutting, unorganised grazing is also one of the reasons. There are several forest diseases resulting from parasitic fungi, rusts, mistletoes, viruses and nematodes which cause the destruction of trees. The forests should be protected either by use of chemical spray, antibiotics or by development of disease resistant strains of trees.

(ii) Regulated and Planned Cutting of Trees: Cutting of trees should be regulated by adopting methods like Clear cutting method which is useful for those areas where the same types of trees are available over a large area, in selective cutting of only mature trees and shelter wood cutting where first of all useless trees are cut down followed by medium and best quality timber trees.

(iii) Reforestation and Afforestation: Reforestation may be done by natural or artificial methods. Any forested land, which has been destroyed by fire or mining activities, should be reforested. For afforestation, selection of trees should be done according to local geographical conditions and care must be taken during initial growth of the trees.

(i) It makes land to lose its biological and economic value
(ii) It leads to reduction in agricultural productivity
(i) Provision of employment: The process of exploration and mining of these minerals usually generates job opportunities for people which in turn creates job employment.

(ii) Generation of revenue: One of the ways that the government of Nigeria generates revenues for the Nigerian economy is through the Taxes paid by mining companies including the export and import duties on minerals that are gotten from the country’s rich deposits.

(iii) Foreign exchange earning: The activities of mining have led to the export of minerals like petroleum, coal and tin from Nigeria thus, providing foreign exchange for the country’s economy.

(i) Landscape defacement
(ii) Increase in soil erosion
(iii) Air pollution from engines

(i) Proper management of exploitation sites
(ii) Development of a proper drainage system
(iii) Use of modern technology for exploration.
(i) Generation of hydropower: Dams generate hydroelectric power for the country and this increases the standard of living such as through domestic use of power. The energy produced from the dams is clean and pollution free.

(ii) Promotes irrigating farming: Dams and waterways store and provide water for irrigation which farmers use as water for growing crops. In areas where water and rain are not abundant, irrigation canals from rivers and dams are used to carry water thus, increasing food production and income.

(iii) Diversification of the economy: Dams aid in the diversification of the economy by developing many economic activities in the region such as farming, trade, industries, and increasing national income.

(iv) Control of flooding: The dam has controlled the flooding of the Niger River since the huge reservoir holds back a lot of water and better living standards, especially in the delta zone.

(i) Inadequate vegetation and erosion: Overgrazing, poor weed control, concentrated runoff, and wave erosion cause poor vegetative cover and erosion on a dam. The bare soil or sparse vegetative cover is especially susceptible to damage and erosion.

(ii) Obstructions in outlet channel: Beaver dams, accumulated sediment, and other obstructions placed in outlet channels can back water up into spillway outlets, reducing their capacity. Reduced discharge capacity will cause the reservoir to rise and possibly overtop the dam. Prolonged overtopping can cause dam failure.

(i) Areas of sparse vegetation should be reseeded with perennial grasses each spring or fall and control weeds by mowing or application of herbicides.

(ii) Remove beaver dams, sediment, and other obstructions in outlet channels so water does not back up into spillway pipes and apply extreme caution when attempting to remove accumulated debris during periods of high flow.








No (3a)


The texture of a rock is the size, shape, and arrangement of the grains (for sedimentary rocks) or crystals (for igneous and metamorphic rocks. Example includes: basalt, andesite and rhyolite.


The structure of an igneous rock is normally taken to comprise the mutual relationships of mineral or mineral-glass aggregates that have contrasting textures, along with layering, fractures, and other larger-scale features that transect or bound such aggregates.

(iii) Colour: Color index is an indicator of the types of minerals present, and the specific type of rock. The color index of an igneous rock is a measure of the ratio of dark colored, or mafic, minerals to light colored, or felsic, minerals.



– Plutonic rocks are formed when magma cools and solidifies underground.

– It cools at a very slow rate and may take thousands or millions of years to solidify.


– Volcanic rocks are formed from lava that flows on the surface of the Earth and other planets and then cools and solidifies.

– It doesn’t cool at a very slow rate and it doesn’t take thousands or millions of years to solidify.




(i) Weather is the atmospheric over a condition of a place short period (days, weeks, hours, months).

(ii) Weather changes very often.

(iii) Weather cannot be generalized.


(i) Climate is the average condition of a place over a long period of time (35 years).

(ii) Climate does not change very often.

(iii) Climate can be generalized.


Environmental resources means any useful item in the environment or materials and substances that are useful to man.


[PICK ANY FOUR] (i) Atmospheric resources

(ii) Human resources

(iii) Mineral resources

(iv) Land resources

(v) Vegetation resources.


[PICK ANY TWO] (i) Forest resources such as timber products provide raw materials for the local industries e.g. furniture industry.

(ii) Forest resources provide herbs for pharmaceutical and herbal industries and clinics. They contribute positively to the health of the people.

(iii) Exportation of forest resources provide government with foreign exchange e.g. export of timber.

(iv) It helps various levels of government to generate revenue from taxes imposed on products and firms involved in the exploitation of forest resources.

(v) Grasslands provide food for livestock which serves as food for man.

(vi) Forest resources provide habitation for wildlife and also help to promote tourism e.g. Yankari game reserve in Nigeria etc.




(i) It is cost effective and requires less manpower as it is tool-based.

(ii) It requires field study to interpret data into useful information


(i) It is a costly affair as the data is incurred from space and through sensors and satellites.

(ii) It reduces manual work and ground field study.


(i) In Telecommunication: Satellite remote sensing have been found to be more useful and relevant in telecommunication. The satellite remote sensing has made it possible for regional, national and international communication without being in direct contact with human beings.

(ii) In Transportation: The availability of high resolution commercial remote sensing has contributed to a revolution to the transport network. The satellite remote sensing is useful to transportation, it helps to improve the trafficability of the roads and also contributed greatly in the movement of aero planes, jets and even seen beyond the bonds of human eye sight.


(i) Inadequate Power

(ii) Inadequate Personnel

(iii) Inadequate Personnel

(iv) Inadequate capital


The questions below are not exactly 2023 NECO Geography questions and answers but likely NECO Geography repeated questions and answers.

These questions are strictly for practice. The 2023 NECO Geography expo will be posted on this page on the day of the NECO Geography examination. Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers.

1. a) Highlight any three main characteristics of each of the following settlement types:
i) village;
ii) town.

b) State any four factors which are responsible for the growth of urban centres.

2. a) Define the following population terms:
i) census;
ii) mortality rate;

b) family planning. Outline any three problems confronting a country that is overpopulated.

c) Highlight any three ways by which the problem of overpopulation can be solved.

3. Write a geographical description of Chad Basin under the following:

a) relief and drainage;
b) people, population and settlement;
c) economic activities;
d) problems of development.

4. (a) Draw an outline map of Africa. On the map, show and name:
(i) any three rivers important for generating hydroelectricity;
(ii) any two dams on two of the rivers.

(b) Outline any five benefits of hydroelectric power to the people of Africa.


How To Pass NECO Geography Examination

The National Examination Council (NECO) is a body in charge of the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination.

The Certificate offered here is a very important credential that awards or certifies the completion of your Secondary School Education.

It is a major document that qualifies you into any tertiary institution and is equally a major factor affecting admission today.

For this reason, every Student preparing for this examination NECO 2023 is preparing for something great.

Care should be taken when participating in this examination in other not to come out with bad grades. The following are the key answers to  NECO Geography 2023.

1. Be Determined to Pass

The NECO 2022 Geography is mainly for those who have made up their mind to pass it with a good grade.

Any candidate who, at this point in time, has not made up his or her mind to make the excellent grade in the forthcoming NECO 2023 Geography is actually not ready to pass.

Your mind should be ready for the task ahead, do not follow lazy friends who believe in a miracle on the day of the exams, stay positive and study your books.

2. Have self-confidence

Self-confidence is another factor that affects a candidate’s performance. Promise to do it all by yourself and everything will come out very simple for you.

It is a well-known fact that many students cancel the right answers just to copy the wrong ones because of a lack of self-confidence. Study and pray hard and you are the miracle for the day.

3. Start Studying Early

Studying is very important in your life as a student. NECO is a very simple Exam to deal with as long as studies are involved. Studying is one thing and studying on time is another thing entirely.

Do not wait for the NECO 2023 Geography exams to be so close before you start studying for them. Late preparation will not really help you. When you start studying early there will be time for you to revise before the exams.

2. Make Use the NECO 2023 Syllabus

Using the NECO 2023 syllabus is very essential as it will guide you on major topics to cover. Studying without the Syllabus will make you focus on unnecessary topics that will not appear in the exams.

Also, most of the Geography topics you have not done in class are there in the NECO syllabus.

3. Pray to God Your creator

Many think that they can do it all alone without God. The Almighty God is your creator, seek His assistance and He will never fail to help you. Your faith in God determines your success. God is there for you, call upon Him.

4. Adhere to exams instructions.

Any student who is not ready to adhere to the examination conducts is planning to fail. The majority of NECO Candidates that have their results held are from those that were not ready to follow the Exam instructions.

5. Use Your Time Wisely.

It is a well-known fact that NECO Geography map-reading needs a lot of time, manage the little time given to you wisely. Consider the number of questions you are to answer and the time given so that you can time wisely.

6. Be punctual to the examination venue

Punctuality matters during the exams. Go to the exam venue early so that your brain can settle for the task. Rushing to the exam hall will make you unstable for the exam and can prone you to so many mistakes.

Take time to go through the exam question paper before you start answering. NECO Geography Questions and Answers

If you have any questions about the 2023 NECO Geography questions and answers, do well to let us know in the comment box.

Last Updated on April 4, 2023 by Admin

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