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The West African Examination Council is an examination body that set questions annually from areas students should, after their studies in the senior secondary school, be able to write and pass without stress.
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WAEC Government Questions and Answers 2023
The answers will be posted here on 8th June during the exam
Today’s WAEC Government answers:
WAEC OBJ Answers Loading
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Legislative Function: The government, through the National Assembly (comprising the Senate and House of Representatives), is responsible for creating and passing laws that govern the nation. This function includes initiating, debating, amending, and enacting laws that promote order, justice, and the overall welfare of the citizens.
(ii) Executive Function: The government is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws and policies. The President, as the head of the executive branch, is tasked with executing and managing government programs and ensuring the smooth functioning of various government agencies and departments.
(iii) Judicial Function: The government provides a judicial system that ensures justice and the rule of law. It establishes courts and tribunals, appoints judges, and administers justice by interpreting and applying the law in resolving disputes, protecting rights, and punishing offenders.
(iv) Security and Defense: The government is responsible for safeguarding the nation’s security and defending it from internal and external threats. This includes maintaining law and order, protecting citizens’ lives and property, and ensuring national defense through military and security agencies.
(v) Economic Management: The government plays a crucial role in managing the economy. It formulates and implements economic policies, regulations, and frameworks to promote economic growth, stability, and development. This involves areas such as fiscal policy, monetary policy, trade policy, and investment promotion.
(vi) Social Welfare: The government is responsible for providing social welfare programs and services to enhance the well-being of its citizens. This includes initiatives in areas such as education, healthcare, housing, social security, poverty alleviation, and support for vulnerable populations.
(vii) Infrastructure Development: The government undertakes the task of developing and maintaining infrastructure, including transportation networks (roads, railways, airports, ports), energy systems, water supply, and communication networks. Infrastructure development is vital for economic growth, connectivity, and improving the quality of life for citizens.
(viii) Public Services: The government provides various public services to meet the needs of its citizens. This includes services such as public education, healthcare, transportation, utilities (water, electricity), public safety (police, fire services), waste management, and environmental protection.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Insufficient Resources: Inadequate allocation of resources, including funding, infrastructure, and personnel, can severely impede the effective functioning of the justice system. Lack of resources can result in overcrowded courts, understaffed judicial bodies, and limited access to legal aid, undermining the system’s ability to deliver timely justice.
(ii) Corruption and Bribery: The presence of corruption and bribery within the justice system can erode public trust and confidence. When judges, lawyers, or court personnel are susceptible to external influences or engage in corrupt practices, it undermines the fairness and impartiality of the justice delivery system.
(iii) Lack of Access to Legal Services: Unequal access to legal services, particularly for marginalized and economically disadvantaged individuals, poses a significant challenge. Limited availability of legal aid, high legal costs, and inadequate representation can result in unequal access to justice, favoring those with greater resources.
(iv) Complexity and Lengthy Procedures: Complex and lengthy legal procedures can deter individuals from seeking justice. When legal processes are convoluted and time-consuming, it discourages people from pursuing their rights and can lead to frustration and a lack of faith in the justice system.
(v) Inadequate Judicial Training: The effectiveness of the justice delivery system relies on well-trained and competent judges and legal professionals. Insufficient training programs and professional development opportunities can hinder the system’s ability to interpret and apply laws effectively, impacting the quality of judgments and decisions.
(vi) Political Interference: Undue political influence on the justice system can compromise its independence and impartiality. When politicians interfere in judicial appointments, case proceedings, or verdicts, it undermines the integrity of the justice delivery system and erodes public trust.
(vii) Inadequate Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms: A lack of accessible and efficient alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, such as mediation and arbitration, can burden the formal justice system. When people are unable to resolve their disputes through alternative means, it increases the caseload of the courts and contributes to delays in justice delivery.
(viii) Backlog of Cases: One of the significant challenges faced by the justice delivery system is the accumulation of a large number of pending cases. This backlog can lead to significant delays in the resolution of disputes, undermining the system’s efficiency and eroding public trust.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Formation of Political Values and Beliefs: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political values and beliefs, which are essential for making informed political choices. Through family, education, media, and peer groups, individuals acquire knowledge about political systems, ideologies, and policies, enabling them to form opinions and make decisions in a democratic society.
(ii) Promotion of Political Awareness: Political socialization raises awareness about political issues, events, and processes. It exposes individuals to various sources of information, such as news, debates, and discussions, which helps them stay informed about political developments. This awareness enables citizens to actively engage in political debates, analyze different perspectives, and make informed decisions during elections and other democratic processes.
(iii) Encouragement of Active Citizenship: Political socialization encourages individuals to become active participants in the democratic process. By instilling a sense of civic duty, political socialization motivates citizens to vote, join political parties or interest groups, engage in public protests, and participate in community-based initiatives. Active citizenship is vital for a functioning democracy as it ensures that diverse voices and interests are represented and considered in decision-making processes.
(iv) Fostering Political Tolerance and Pluralism: Political socialization contributes to the development of political tolerance and respect for diverse viewpoints. Through exposure to different ideologies, cultures, and perspectives, individuals learn to appreciate and accept political diversity. This tolerance fosters open dialogue, compromise, and cooperation among citizens with differing opinions, which are fundamental for the functioning of a democratic society.
(v) Generation of Political Legitimacy: Political socialization helps establish political legitimacy by cultivating citizens’ trust and confidence in democratic institutions and processes. When individuals are socialized to understand the principles and values underlying democracy, they are more likely to accept and respect the outcomes of elections, abide by the rule of law, and actively engage in civic and political activities. This legitimacy strengthens the democratic system, enhances political stability, and facilitates effective governance.
(vi) Development of Political Identity: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political identity, which is crucial for their engagement in democratic processes. Through exposure to various socializing agents such as family, education, and media, individuals acquire a sense of belonging to a particular political ideology, party, or movement.
(vii) Transmission of Democratic Values: Political socialization plays a vital role in transmitting democratic values to individuals from an early age. Family, educational institutions, and social networks help instill values such as freedom, equality, fairness, and justice, which form the foundation of democratic principles.
(PICK ANY ONE)
Political leadership refers to the role and responsibilities of individuals who hold positions of authority and influence within the realm of politics. It encompasses the ability to lead, guide, and make decisions that shape the political landscape and governance of a country, region, or community.
Political leadership refers to the process and practice of guiding and influencing political processes and activities towards achieving specific goals within the realm of politics. It involves individuals who hold positions of authority or influence within political systems and who use their power to shape policies, make decisions, and mobilize support.
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Integrity: Good political leaders are honest, ethical, and demonstrate a strong sense of integrity. They act in the best interest of the public and uphold high moral and ethical standards.
(ii) Vision and Strategic Thinking: Effective political leaders have a clear vision for the future and are capable of strategic thinking. They can envision and articulate a compelling long-term direction for their country or community.
(iii) Strong Communication Skills: Good political leaders are excellent communicators. They can effectively convey their ideas, inspire others, and build consensus. They actively listen to diverse perspectives and engage in constructive dialogue.
(iv) Emotional Intelligence: Political leaders with emotional intelligence are aware of their own emotions and can manage them effectively. They also demonstrate empathy and understanding towards the needs and concerns of the people they serve.
(v) Leadership and Decision-Making: Good political leaders possess strong leadership skills. They have the ability to make informed and timely decisions, even in challenging or complex situations.
(vi) Problem-Solving and Innovation: Effective political leaders are adept at problem-solving. They can identify key issues and challenges, develop creative solutions, and take decisive action.
(vii) Resilience and Perseverance: Good political leaders exhibit resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity. They remain committed to their vision and goals, even when confronted with obstacles or setbacks.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Imposition of Colonial Rule: European powers, such as Britain, France, and Germany, imposed direct colonial rule over various West African territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This resulted in the loss of sovereignty and political independence for the indigenous states and societies.
(ii) Administrative Reorganization: Colonial powers reorganized the political and administrative structures of West African territories to suit their interests. They established centralized bureaucratic systems, replacing or co-opting existing traditional systems of governance.
(iii) Creation of Artificial Boundaries: Colonial powers drew arbitrary boundaries without considering the ethnic, cultural, or historical realities of the region. This resulted in the division of ethnic groups and communities across multiple colonies, leading to fragmented and diverse political landscapes.
(iv) Emergence of Nationalist Movements: The experience of colonial rule and the denial of political rights and self-determination fueled the growth of nationalist movements. These movements sought to challenge colonial domination and fought for independence and self-governance.
(v) Political Education and Awareness: The colonial period witnessed the emergence of educated elites who received Western-style education and were exposed to political ideas such as nationalism, self-determination, and democracy.
(vi) Transition to Statehood: The political impacts of colonial administration laid the groundwork for the eventual transition to statehood. Through nationalist struggles and diplomatic negotiations, West African territories gained independence from colonial rule.
(vi) Legacy of Colonial Borders and Divisions: The artificial borders established by colonial powers have had lasting impacts on the political dynamics in West Africa. Post-colonial states have had to grapple with issues of ethnic diversity, boundary disputes, and the legacy of colonial rule, which continue to shape political realities in the region.
Before we get started, take a look at the guide below:
- Cover WAEC syllabus 2023
- Make use of the WAEC Government recommended textbooks
- Have self-confidence
- Pray to God your Creator
- Follow and understand the questions presented to you.
WAEC 2023 Government Practice Questions
Below are sure WAEC Government questions.
1. Power differs from influence in that it is
A. persuasive while influence is directive
B. coercive while influence is harmful
C. coercive while influence is persuasive
D. arrogant while influence is corruptive
2. The standing committee of a legislature is one
A. whose member stand while deliberating
B. that has statutory responsibilities
C. that perform adhoc functions
D. that has legislators as members.
3. Where the constitution is supreme, unconstitutional acts of the executive and the legislature can be checked by the courts through
B. judicial review
C. vote of no confidence
4. The central decision-making organ of a confederation is made up of
A. technocrats appointed by the units
B. politicians elected from the confederal constituencies
C. politicians nominated by the government of member states
D. representatives of pressure groups.
5. Which of the following is true of a parliamentary system of government?
A. clear separation of government organs.
B. strict operation of a bicameral legislature.
C. removal of government by impeachment.
D. adherence to majority rule.
6. A major feature of authoritarianism is that government is
7. The central point of capitalism, as expounded by Karl Marx, is that
A. capitalist profit is the surplus value obtained from workers labour
B. workers are inherently incapable of being owners of their labour
C. capitalists shall always increase worker earning capacity through wages
D. capitslists shall always readily consent to workers welfare demands.
8. A constitution that requires a plebiscite or a referendum to be amended is
9. An important function of a constitution is that it
A. provide a framework for the study of government
B. facilities cross-fertilization of ideas of governance
C. serves as the fountain head of authority for the exercise of power
D. promotes citizen participation in government and administration.
10. When a bill passed by the legislature is vetoed by the executive, the action underscores the principle
A. probity and accountability
B. separation of powers
C. collective responsibility
D. checks and balances.
11. In the legislative process, a bill is pass
A. motion accepted for debate
B. motion rejected after debate
C. proposal before the legislature
D. law pass by the legislature.
12. One of the advantages of a bicameral over a unicameral legislature is that it
A. is cheap to maintain
B. promotes social equality
C. takes less time for the bills to be passed
D. prevents the passage of ill-considered bills.
13. The fundamental rights of citizens include rights to
A. free education, employment and freedom of thought
B. life, speech and association
C. life, liberty and property
D. association, property and social security.
14. The manipulation of boundaries of constituencies in order to win more seats is called
15. One argument against a multi-party system is the
A. encouragement of opposition and instability
B. banning of interest groups
C. inability to attract foreign assistance
D. high cost of conducting elections.
16. Associational interest groups are organized to
A. Further the interest of members
B. Specifically lobby the government
C. Support the government
D. Achieve goals affecting other associations.
17. Public opinion is a view that is
A. held by the majority
B. active in the public realm
C. widely publicized
D. no longer a secret.
18. The political neutrality of civil servants implies that they
A. are not allowed to join any organisation or group
B. have no dealings with politicians
C. are not allowed to be involved in partisan politics
D. are not allowed to vote.
19. The idea of making the civil service permanent, neutral and anonymous is to
A. Enhance efficiency in administration
B. Ensure loyalty and support
C. Prevent opposition to government
D. Make civil servants a functional elite.
20. The western zone of the Sokoto caliphate was administered from
21. Some pre-colonial Nigerian societies are described as stateless because
A. they had no formal governmental institutions
B. they had no definite political boundaries
C. their population was too small
D. they were not independent.
22. The method used by the British to facilitate the administration of Southern Nigeria was
C. Divide and rule
D. Trade association.
23. A major function of the warrant chiefs was to
A. prevent tribal wars
B. supervise native courts and markets
C. stop ritual killings
D. take charge of local administration.
24. After 1945, the demand of African nationalists changed from reform to independence because
A. colonial rule became less oppressive
B. colonial rule was in disarray
C. the second world war boosted their morale
D. the second world war enhanced colonial rule.
25. When Nigeria achieved independence in 1960, the head of state was the
B. prime minister
D. Queen of England.
26. Delegated legislature becomes unavoidable when
A. legislators cannot reach a consensus
B. issues under consideration are personal
C. issues under consideration are technical
D. legislators have to proceed on a recess.
27. One major disadvantage of public opinion is that
A. the critics of government policies are always harassed
B. a vocal minority claims to represent the majority
C. gossip and rumours thrive
D. leaders are unnecessarily criticized.
28. Citizenship in a modern state expresses the status of a person who possesses
A. full political rights
B. some religious rights
C. social right only
D. exclusive economic rights.
29. Communism is a system which recognizes
A. class stratification
B. the existence of the state
C. the existence of the individual
D. the ability of the individual
30. The delineation of constituencies is a major duty of the
A. national assembly
B. political parties
C. boundary commission
D. electoral commission
31. The structure of the civil service is based on
A. lateral organisation
B. merit system
C. patronage system
D. hierachical organization
32. A common feature of a multi-party system is that government is formed by
A. the major political party
B. all the registered political parties
C. a coalition of political parties
D. the party with the highest votes.
33. To qualify for absorption into the administration cadre of the civil service in Nigeria, an applicant must be
A. knowledgable in civil services rule
B. a holder of a first university degree
C. specifically trained in public administration
D. a senior civil serv.ant
34. The final interpretation pf the provisions of a federal constitution is vested in the
A. head of state
B. council of state
C. highest legislative body
D. highest court of the land.
35. A major issue that distinguishes pressure groups from political parties is
A. Membership drive
B. The objective
C. The voting pattern
36. Proportional representation is a system of allocating seats in the legislature based on
A. gender participation in politics
B. an area
C. contribution to the national economy
D. total votes in an election.
37. The application of the principle of separation of powers seems impracticable because powers are
38. When did Nigeria gain her Independence?
A. 1st October, 1963
B. 31st October, 1690
C. 1st October, 2012
D. 1st October, 1960
E. 12th October, 1992
39. The central legislature of Nigeria became bicameral in
40. Which of these constitutions recognized local government as a third tier of government in Nigeria?
A. 1946 Constitution.
B. 1960 Constitution.
C. 1963 Constitution.
D. 1979 Constitution.
41. Under the 1963 constitution, items not listed in the exclusive and concurrent list were within the exclusive competence of the
B. federal parliament
C. regional legislatures
42. Before Nigeria became a republic, the highest body charged with the administrator of justice was the
A. Privy council
B. High court
C. Supreme court
D. Court of appeal
43. The equivalent of the commissioner at the local government level is the
A. Executive chairman
D. Supervisory councilor.
44. The Independent National Electoral Commission has the power to prepare and maintain the register of
A. Political parties
D. Electoral candidates.
45. The president of Nigeria is advised on the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country by the
A. National Security Council
B. National Defense Council
C. Council of state
D. Federal Executive Council
46. The Nigerian Youth Movement collapsed as the result of
A. Its failure to win election
B. Shortage of funds to run its affairs
C. The harassment of its leadership by the government.
D. The breakup of its leadership.
47. The first restructuring of the Nigerian Federation took place with the
A. Creation of mid-west Region in 1963
B. Abolition of federalism in 1966
C. Military counter-coup in 1966
D. Creation of states in 1967
48. The land use decree of 1978 vested the ownership of land in Nigeria in the
A. local chiefs
B. local governments
C. state governments
D. federal governments
49. The main source of financing local government in Nigeria is
A. internal revenue generation
B. statutory revenue allocation
C. special state grants
50. The most remarkable legacy of the 1976 Local Government Reform in Nigeria was the introduction of
A. the office of sole administrators
B. caretaker management committees
C. uniformity in structure and functions
D. the third tier of government.
WAEC Government Essay Questions
- Outline three merits and three demerits of Separation of Powers.
- Explain six functions performed by political parties in your country.
- Describe six factors that can determine the effectiveness of pressure groups
- Explain six duties expected to be performed by a citizen of a state.
- (a) What is a state?
(b) Outline five reasons why individuals must belong to a state.
6. How did the people of British West African territories govern themselves before the
advent of colonial rule.
7. What are the main criticisms levelled against the 1946 Richards Constitution of Nigeria.
8. Outline six benefits Nigeria derives from her membership of the United Nations
WAEC Government Essay and Objective 2023 (EXPO)
The above questions are not exactly 2023 WAEC Government questions and answers but likely WAEC Government repeated questions and answers.
These questions are for practice. The 2023 WAEC Government expo will be posted on this page during the WAEC Government examination. Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers.
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Last Updated on June 8, 2023 by Admin