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WAEC GCE Biology Questions and Answers 2023/2024 ( Essay and Objectives)

WAEC GCE Biology questions and answers 2023Welcome to 2023 WAEC Biology in English Questions and Answers. You will find WAEC GCE Biology Objective and Theory Answers, WAEC Biology Essay 2023, WAEC GCE 2023 Biology, and the tips you need to pass your WAEC GCE Biology examination at ease.

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WAEC GCE Biology Essay and Objectives Questions and Answers 2023 (Expo)

The 2023 WAEC GCE Biology expo will be posted here during the WAEC GCE Bio examination. Keep checking and reloading this page for the answers.

WAEC GCE Nov/Dec. 2023 Biology Answers Loading...

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No (2a)

Tabular form

Adult X:
(i) vitamins
(ii) minerals

(Pick Any ONE)
(i) Glucose
(ii) Amino acids

Adult Y:
(i) carbohydrates
(ii) protein

(Pick Any ONE)
(i) Amino acids.
(ii) Glucose

Constipation is a condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements and difficulty passing stool.

Adult X, who had a meal of vegetables, is less likely to suffer from constipation.

(i) Vegetables are high in fiber, which adds bulk to the stool and helps in regular bowel movements.
(ii) Vegetables are also high in water content, which helps soften the stool and makes it easier to pass.
(iii) The presence of vitamins and minerals in vegetables helps promote a healthy digestive system and proper bowel function.

(i) White bread provides a quick source of energy due to its high carbohydrate content.
(ii) The fried egg provides protein, which helps in muscle growth and repair.
(iii) The combination of white bread and fried egg can provide a balance of essential nutrients for the body.
(iv) The meal can be filling and satisfying, helping to reduce hunger and provide satiety.

(i) Inadequate intake of essential nutrients: People may not consume a balanced diet that provides all the necessary vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients.
(ii) Poor absorption of nutrients: Certain medical conditions or digestive disorders can impair the absorption of nutrients from food.
(iii) Increased nutrient needs: Certain life stages, such as pregnancy or lactation, as well as certain medical conditions, may require higher nutrient intake than usual, and if these needs are not met, malnutrition can occur.

(i) Stunted growth: Malnutrition can lead to a lack of essential nutrients needed for proper growth and development, resulting in reduced height and weight for age.
(ii) Weak immune system: Malnutrition weakens the immune system, making children more susceptible to infections and diseases.
(iii) Delayed cognitive development: Inadequate nutrition can affect the brain’s development, leading to learning difficulties and impaired cognitive function.
(iv) Lack of energy: Malnourished children may experience fatigue and lack of energy, affecting their overall physical and mental well-being.


Vitamin K


(i) Cucumber
(ii) Cabbage
(iii) Lettuce
(iv) Spinach
(v) Broccoli
(vi) Brussels sprouts

(i) Blood typing and crossmatching
(ii) Compatibility testing for infectious diseases like hepatitis and HIV
(iii) Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to assess the patient’s blood count

(i) Blood group A and Blood group O
(ii) Blood group A and Blood group O

The genetic disorder named in Hemophilia is common in males because it is an X-linked recessive disorder. Males only have one X chromosome, so if they inherit the faulty gene on their X chromosome, they will manifest the disorder.

If she inherits an X chromosome with the hemophilia gene from both parents

(i) Down syndrome  
(ii) Cystic fibrosis.


Phototropism is a biological process where plants grow towards a light source. In this case, the dark box with a hole allowed light to enter from one side only. The seedlings detected the light and responded by growing and bending towards the direction of the hole. This directional growth is a result of differential cell elongation on the side of the seedling away from the light, causing it to bend towards the light source.

Without a hole, the seedlings would not receive directional light cues, and their growth would likely be more random and not oriented towards a specific direction. The seedlings might exhibit a more upright and uniform growth pattern.

The balance of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and oxygen (O₂) in an ecosystem is maintained through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. During photosynthesis, plants and some microorganisms take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen, contributing to an increase in atmospheric oxygen. On the other hand, during respiration, organisms consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The overall balance between these processes helps to regulate the levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the ecosystem.

The Sun

Without a supply of energy, the ecosystem would be unable to sustain life. Energy is necessary for all biological processes, including growth, reproduction, and maintaining metabolic activities. If there is no supply of energy, the ecosystem’s organisms would not be able to function, leading to a collapse of the food chain and the ecosystem as a whole.

(i) Lithosphere:
The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth, consisting of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle.

(ii) Hydrosphere:
The hydrosphere refers to all the water on Earth, including oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and water vapor in the atmosphere.

(iii) Ecological Niche:
An ecological niche is the role and position of a species within an ecosystem, including its interactions with the biotic and abiotic factors. It encompasses how a species obtains and uses resources and how it contributes to the structure and function of the ecosystem.

(i) Interspecific competition is the competition for resources (such as food, water, and space) between different species in a community.

(ii) The likely reasons for the death of seedlings could include overcrowding, competition for nutrients, water, and sunlight among the maize plants. In a small piece of land, resources may be limited, leading to stress on the plants and increased susceptibility to diseases and pests. The lack of sufficient space for root expansion and the shading effect from nearby plants can also contribute to the mortality of seedlings.



Note: The answers below are the 2020 Nov/Dec answers.

No (1b)

i. Development and growth. After meiosis has produced a gamete, and this has fused with another gamete to form an embryo, the embryo grows using mitosis. …

ii.Cell replacement. …

iii.Asexual reproduction.

No (2)


Commensalism – Sharks and remora fish, Tigers and golden jackals

Mutualism – Bees and flowers, humans and bacteria in the gut

Parasitism – Humans and tapeworms, cows and ticks

Neutralism – Rainbow trout, and dandevon cactus and tarantulas

Pollution can be referred to as the introduction of harmful materials or substances into our environment thereby causing adverse charges.

(i)It contributes to global warming
(ii)It leaves a huge carbon footprints

(i)it also contributes to global climate change
(ii)It emits mercury which is a neurotoxin as well as carbon dioxide

(i)When it spills in aquatic bodies, it causes loss of aquatic lives
(ii)On land, crude oil spills reduce food productivity


(i) Dominance refers to the exertion of a major controlling influence of one or more species upon all other species by virtue of their number, size, productivity or related activities.

(ii) Size: Population size is the number of individual organisms in a population.

(iii) Density: This the number of living organisms per unit area or volume.

(i) Frog has lungs for breathing but also breathes through its skin.
(ii) They have webbed feet, which help them to swim
(iii) They have long and strong hind limbs, which help them in leaping and catching their prey.

(i) This is a mismatched blood transfusion. The blood will agglutinate which will lead to fatality. In such a situation, a reaction known as hemolytic transfusion reaction causes the patient’s body to form antibodies that attack the new blood cells.

(ii) The patient’ blood is tested and to get a matched to be transfused.

(iii) Discontinuous variation

(iv) To know the patient’s rhesus factor and blood group which are parameters necessary for a successful blood transfusion

(i) Bacteria
(ii) Plants
(iii) Animals

(i) Nitrosomoners
(ii) Nitrobacta
(iii) Fungi

(i) Cook the food well
(ii) Always cover the food
(iii) Ensure the environment is always clean

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The questions below are not exactly 2022 WAEC Biology questions and answers but likely WAEC Literature likely repeated questions and answers.

These questions are strictly for practice. The 2022 WAEC GCE Biology expo will be posted on this page on the day of the WAEC GCE Biology examination. Keep checking and refreshing/reloading this page for the answers.

1. Which of the following groups of animals do not possess a nervous system? (a) Porifera (b) Cnidaria (c) Platyhelminthes (d) Nematoda

2. The structural and pointed similarities in paramecium and Euglena are in the (a) Shape of locomotory organs (b) blunt anterior and pointed posterior (c) presence of micro and mega nuclei in both. (d) presence of anterior and posterior contractile vacuoles

3. Which of the following organisms cannot exist freely on its own? (a) Chlamydomonas (b) Amoeba (c) Paramecium (d) Plasmodium

the diagram below is an illustration of an Arthropod. Study it and answer question 4

4. The Arthropod in the diagram is not an insect because it (a) has a big head that is almost equal to the “thorax. (b) has eight lets and no wings (c) does not have visible eyes on it head (d) has head, thorax and abdomen

5. Which of the following cell organelles is the site for the production of ATP? (a) Lysosome (b) Nucleus (c) Mitochondrion (d) Ribosome

6. An example of osmosis in plants is the (a) movement of water through the xylem (b) loss of water vapour from stomata (c) transaction of food through the phloem (d) absorption of water from the soil by the root.

7. The organism that can carry out both autrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition is (a) Chlamydomonas (b) Eudorina (c) Euglena (d) Spirogyra

The diagram below illustrates a part of human skeleton. Study it and answer questions 8 to 10

8. The diagram represent the bones of the (a) upper arm (b) lower arm (c) upper leg (d) lower leg

9. Which of the labeled parts articulates with the head of the trochlea to form a hinge point? (a) I (b) II (c) III (d) IV

10. The labeled part that provides surface for  the attachment of the triceps is (a) I (b) II (c) III (d) IV


The diagram below illustrates

11. The transverse section of (a) dicotyledonous root (b) monocotyledonous root (c) dicotyledonous stem (d) monocotyledonous stem

12. Which of the following actions does not occur during exhalation in man? (a) Thoracic cavity decreases in volume (b) Diaphragm flattens (c) Ribs move down and in (d) Air pressure increases in the thoracic cavity

The diagram below is an illustration of the urinary tubule in a mammal. Study it and answer question 13 to 15.

13. Which of the following substances is found in part labeled II only? (a) Lipid (b) Protein (c) Salts (d) Water

14. The part which contains the lowest concentration of urea is labeled (a) I (b) II (c) III (d) IV

15. Which of the following substances is greater in concentration in the part labeled IV when compared to that of the part labeled I? (a) Lipid (b) Glucose (c) Urea (d) Uric acid

16. Deamination of amino acids in the liver produces (a) blood sugar (b) glycogen (c) bile (d) urea

17. Which of the following glands also serves as an exocrine gland? (a) Ovary (b) Pancreas (c) Adrenal (d) Thyroid

18. Which of the following sequences is the correct route of the transmission of impulses along a reflex arc?

(a) Receptor → sensory neurone → synapse intermediate neurone → synapse → motor neurone effector

(b) Receptor → motor neurone → synapse → intermediate neurone → synapse → sensory neurone → effector

(c) Effector → intermediate neurone → synapse → motor neurone → synapse →sensory neurone → receptor

(d) Effector → motor neurone → synapse → sensory neurone → synapse → intermediate neurone → receptor

19. when viewing an object that is close to the human eye, the (a) eye lens becomes thin. (b) ciliary muscles relax (c) suspensory ligaments become taut. (d) eye lens become fat

The diagram below is an illustration of the human sperm. Study it and answer questions 20 and 21

20. The part labeled I is the (a) acrosome (b) nucleus (c) mitochondrion (d) tail

21. The function of the part labeled II is to (a) fuse with the ovum during fertilization (b) generate the energy for the sperm to swim to the fallopian tube (c) help the sperm to swim forward (d) dissolve the membrane of the egg during fertilization.

22. Which of the following types of placentation is not common amongst syncarpous pistils? (a) Marginal (b) Axile (c) Parietal (d) Free central

23. The complex energy-rich organic matter which living organisms need for life is (a) water (b) air (c) food (d) mineral salts

24. Which of the following processes are associated with photosynthesis? I. Energy from sunlight is absorbed II Carbon dioxide is evolved III Oxygen is given off IV Glucose is synthesized.

I and II only (b) I, II and IV only (c) I, III and IV only (d) I, II, III and IV

25. Which of the following functions is associated with calcium in plants? Formation of (a) Cell wall (b) Ribosomes. (c) Proteins (d) Cell membrane

If you have any questions about the WAEC GCE Biology questions and answers, kindly drop your question in the comment box.

Last Updated on December 8, 2023 by Admin

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21 thoughts on “WAEC GCE Biology Questions and Answers 2023/2024 ( Essay and Objectives)”

  1. Please I bed weac question relating to the topic biological processes

  2. Plz I need GCE biology answers
    And at what time should we be expecting it

    • Hello good evening,please can I get the biology 2021 questions?

  3. Is that the real objective question 1-25 for waec GCE biology


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